(Nature.com, 2014). Through extensive testing it has been found that small alcohols, specifically ethanol can increase the fluidity and membrane permeability of the phospholipid bilayer (Patra et al, 2005). The aim of the experiment was to test what effect that ethanol solution would have on the membrane
Tanning industry. By analysing current potent and catalytic activity of the lipase enzyme, these are considered to be of great use in the class of industrial enzymes. After proteases and amylases which have a great use in industry, the lipases are regarded to have the third volume sales up, up to billions of dollars, showing their application flexibility and potent. They are also most chosen biocatalysts due to their unique characteristics such as chemo-, region- and enantioselectivities. These characteristics allow us to produce drugs, agroproducts and fine chemicals.
Upon finding the actual concentrations of salicylic acid, concentration of aspirin in the flask at various times can be found using the equation [aspirin]t = [aspirin]0 – [salicylic acid], since at constant volume, number of moles of initial aspirin decrease to form salicylic acid. Initial concentration of aspirin formed as follows: [aspirin]0 = 0.212g / (180.157gmol-1 * 50/1000 L) = 0.0235 mol L-1. Thus using the first test as sample, [aspirin]t = 0.0235 – 9.981*10-4 = 0.0225 mol L-1. To find the rate constant, we will need to log the value of [aspirin]t and plot it against time to find the rate constant. Figure 1 shows the diluted and actual concentrations of salicylic acid, the concentration and log value of aspirin at various times.
Standard solution The standard solution was tested for its value and was used in the calculation of the patient's urea and creatinine value. ii. Running patient's specimen a. Creatinine 1ml of creatinine reagent 1 and 200ml of creatinine reagent 2 was pipetted into the same 1ml cuvette. Following that, 40ml of patient's sample was transferred into the cuvette. The absorbance of the mixture was measured at 30s (A1), 5min and 6min intervals.
Measure and record the total mass of water and the beaker. Subtract this with the value from step 2 in order to achieve the initial mass of water. Using the electronic scale, Measure and record the mass(g) of the alcohol burner, continue by measuring 150 g of ethanol and insert it into the alcohol burner. Place the wire gauze on top of ring clamp belonging to the ring stand. Place the 250ml beaker on top of the wire gauze.
At high concentrations, it can affect the nervous system by preventing cellular respiration, forming complex with iron in the mitochondrial cytochrome enzymes (Locey, 2005). After much research, it is now found to fit the criteria for gasotransmitters, (i) it exists as a gas, (ii) it is permeable to plasma membrane, (iii) it can be synthesised endogenously by enzymes, (iv) it has defined functions at physiological concentrations, and (v) it has specific molecular targets and its effects can be imitated with exogenous applications (Wang, 2002). There have been a lot of evidence documented regarding the therapeutic effects of H2S, mainly in cardiovascular diseases (Elsey, Fowkes & Baxter, 2010). 2.2 Therapeutic effects of H2S H2S is reported to be a vasorelaxant of blood vessels and its effects seems to involve K+ and Ca2+ channels, though uncertain (Hart, 2011). It has also been found that H2S can produce other hypotensive effects such as regulating plasma renin levels (Lu et al., 2010) and inhibiting angiotensin converting enzyme activity in endothelial cells (Laggner et al., 2007).
The buret is filled to a point above the "0" mL mark with NaOH solution. In order to fill the tip of the buret with liquid, the solution is drained out of the bottom until the meniscus lies between the "0" and "1" mL marks. The initial buret reading can now be recorded to the nearest 0.01 mL. If you have any doubts as to your ability to read the buret correctly, ask your instructor to check your initial reading. Standardization of NaOH solution Accurately weigh out a sample of approximately 0.3-0.4 g of primary standard potassium hydrogen phthalate, KHPh, which has been previously dried at 120°C.
The sample was transferred to a 250 ml conical flask kept in water bath for alkali treatment. 75 ml of 17.5% caustic soda was measured using a measuring cylinder at 20°C. 15 ml of 17.5% NaOH was added and fibres were macerated gently with a flattened glass rod for 1 minute. 10 ml more NaOH was added and the solution was mixed for 45 seconds. 10 ml NaOH was again added and mixed for 15 seconds to make lump free slurry.
Gastro retentive system is a drug delivery system that delivers drug and remains within the gastric region for longer duration of time. Gastro retentive in-situ gelling system helps to increase bioavailability of drug compared to conventional liquid dosage form. The gel formed from in-situ gelling system being lighter than gastric fluids. Floats over the stomach and produces gastric retention of dosage form and increase gastric residence time resulting in prolonged drug delivery in gastrointestinal tract. It releases the drug in sustained
As a result, these molecules have been used in a wide range of fields. In manufacturing cyclodextrins, a reasonable assumption is that the catalytic group is better placed at the secondary rim of CDs since this opening is wider and therefore more likely to bind the substrate. Generally, CDs with one to four aldehyde groups attached to the secondary rim are the most powerful artificial amine oxidase catalysts. Oxidation of
The researchers concluded that there is increased blood oxygen levels and dopamine activity in response to the taste of an alcoholic beverage, and also that these reactions may the strongest in the right ventral striatum. They said in the article that they were the first ones to use multiple brain imaging to reveal their findings. They concluded that the right ventral striatum may be an especially important area for addiction
Believe it or not Tea caused infant birth rates to go up because of its health benefits. This then caused more labor and helped with the industrial revolution. The roles Tea had in our history is amazing. Including the spread of religion especially Christianity, Taoism, and Buddhism. Also disease prevention, The silk road, and Rise of the
In conclusion I would reccommend reading this article. It 's very interesting to learn about how caffeine actually effects your body. The history was a great addition to the article because it really set the way for it go on by starting with a simple background that led into the more in depth parts. If I were to suggest anything to better the article it would definitely be to make for analogies in the scientific part of the article for readers who may have a harder time understand or lack the basic knowledge of molecules and chemicals. I would say the article is very accurate compared to other articles on caffeine and it 's effects.
Objectives In this lab, you will investigate the percent composition by mass of CO2 in Alka-Seltzer® tablets. In addition, you will find out how much CO2 is released into the atmosphere as 2 Alka-Seltzer® tablets chemically react in vinegar. Procedure 250-mL beaker 100-mL graduated cylinder Scale 60 mL of Vinegar 2 Alka-Seltzer® tablets Materials 1. Clean and dry 250 mL beaker. 2.
The IR analysis indicated a distinctive peak at 1778.43 representing ketone, and another peak at 1226.73 representing ether. The peak at 1400-1600 was indicative of either a ring structure or an alkene group. The reactants were dissolved in xylene since they have more solubility compared to the product which undergoes crystallization. Thereafter the mixture was refluxed to maintain constancy in temperature and ensure mixing. Since xylene has a high boiling point of 140 °C, the reaction proceeded speedily.