When the British took over India, they took over pretty much the entire government and created laws that restricted the rights of the Indians. According to Dr.Lalvani, the British were “superbly efficient” in their duties. However, they only let 6% of the entire government be native Indian( Doc. 2). Which makes it virtually impossible for them to have a say in anything major or minor.
Despite the fact that British rule in India during the Imperial period was extremely negative for the Indian people, it ultimately created an improved Indian nation. The British forced the idea of monoculture, were racist, created unfair trade and economic distress. However, they did provide an education system, improved human rights, promoted peace and created a more modern society for the Indian nation. The British rule began in the early 1600’s. The Mughal rule was the government at the time but it was easily conquered by the British in the 1700’s because it was so weak and corrupt.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi or as more know him Mahatma Gandhi fought and died for the independance of India, even through all the cruelty people say that the British ruling helped shape modern India, did the British really help shape modern India? While many people would agree that the impact the British had was negative, but Dr.Lavani says otherwise, Lavani says that the British Helped India with their Efficient Government admission of 500 million people(Political)(Doc 6), they also built tons of mines, canals, sewers, and roads(Economic)(Doc 10), they as well protected wildlife and ancient buildings and also built universities and museums(Social)(Doc 11 & 17). Political Dr.Lavani’s side of the Argument is that the british helped build or set in stone the creation of modern India, some positives the British brought Politicly were things like really well trained armies, and great Administration(Doc 13 & 6), but that doesn’t mean the British didn’t do anything wrong, the British had only 60 Indians in Government(Doc 2), and the British used armed forces on
Throughout the British rule over India, the Indians went through multiple movements to attempt to regain their independence from the invasive country. Through the British control, Indians became unequal, separated, and extremely poor. Three of the most effective and/or important movements that occur include The Massacre at the Golden Temple, The Homespun Movement, and The Salt March. Each of these events had a strong effect and contribution in the national movements in India. The movements that had been initiated by the Indians were peaceful and were only used just to gain back their equal rights in their own country.
What Led Europe to Succeed over Natives Upon the uncovering of the of the America’s by the European super powers, most of the native American tribes were quickly captured. The question arises as to why the Europeans conquered the Americans and not the other way around. Europe was able to prosper and grow while the indigenous groups of the Americas stayed in the past. European success over American tribes was attributed to the fact that the Europeans possessed more advanced technologies and skills that could be used against natives, Europeans were literate and could record knowledge and events easily, and the European diseases brought over were devastating to the unprepared indian populations. When conquering the Americas, Europeans had majorly
Firm control over local politics by political party machines greatly diminished electoral competition and fostered an environment in which a system of "spoils" thrived. The practice during this time was for elected officials to reward loyal supporters with government jobs - particularly in an effort to win broad support from immigrant communities. Widely accepted in its era, this "spoils system" was largely promulgated by the Tenure of Office Act of 1820. This legislation effectively limited the terms of many federal employees to four years in an effort to render public office more accountable. However, the adverse effect of the measure was the implementation of political appointments based on partisan allegiance rather than capability
The Whiskey Rebellion: When the Confederation Congress had failed greatly with their desire to successfully tie the outlying western areas of the country in the firm structure of the new government. Despite the Northwest Ordinance, which had created single Northwest territory containing land north of Ohio. Under the Northwest Ordinance it had specified a population of 60,000 people to be a minimum amount to gain their statehood. In which the Ordinance had also stated they would gain their freedom of religion and right to a trail by jury to the residents of the territory, and also prohibited slavery throughout the territory. The farmers in the western parts of Massachusetts had begun to rise up in revolt; While settlers in Vermont, Kentucky and Tennessee had begun toying with the new idea of seperating from the Union.
Although the British let wealthy young Indian men study at European colleges, that did not apply to everyone (P 23). Because Britain was taking almost all India jobs, most were poor and had low literacy rates (Doc 9). This is important because once Britain came to India, the highest literacy rates were 16%, but once they left the literacy rates quadrupled in about the same time it took to get 16% average literacy rate (Doc 9). But while the British were here they helped India 's health and life expectancy rate (P 27). Actually, while the British were here they raised the famine deaths by a lot .
Fifty percent of reformers came from these three institutions Harvard, Princeton, Yale. Many of the reformers came with British origins however, by the 1900s most of them lived in Northern cities. There were always two sides to society “the very rich” and “the very poor” and you had to decide what you fit into best. William Kent publicly stated, “I could not believe in the class struggle because every great reform of the past had been wrought by men who were not “selfishly interested”(264). This quote is important because many people judged you by looking at what class you were in.
The British in the 1700s controlled a massive empire all around the world and they knew how to deal with a rebellion, but they had never had a rebellion where former British residents were the rebels. The colonists had a very extreme reaction to a handful of simple taxes the British put in place that were only supposed to help finance the previous wars in North America, most notably the French and Indian War. The British reacted very reasonably against the colonial tax resistance, and the colonists only worsened the situation as they were overreacting about very small taxes. After the British attempted to pass taxes to help finance the recent wars with France, the colonists began on their rampage against any kind of British tax on the goods they bought. The first tax that Britain passed was the Sugar Act of 1764, this tax was on sugar goods and after a lot of unrest Parliament finally lowered the price of the tax and the colonists were satisfied.
Throughout the rule of the British in India, Europeans mainly controlled the government and police force, leaving the Indians with no voice and no protection. According to Dr. Lalvani, the British established an efficient administration over 500 million people. While this was beneficial to the British, the Indians had no control over the taxations and laws that affected them (Doc. #2). Since all of these laws and taxes were targeted to help the British, India’s freedom was stolen, as shown in the Rowlatt Act, a law that allowed the government to imprison people without trial.
The United States military did not start out as organized as it has become. In the beginning stages, during the Colony and Settlement eras, the military was actually just militias in each colony with no formal training. All able-bodied men were declared as part of the militias. Each militia provided its own weapons. A “dual army” was created during the American Revolution.
For the English government this success meant that they had eliminated their major rival in settling colonies in the new-world. For thirteen colonies, this was a bittersweet time as the war had given them major profits, and the aftermath gave them their own small debt, which was insignificant compared to England’s amount, but nevertheless, they were relieved to be out of the war and back into a peaceful setting, albeit one that was temporarily. The sense of victory would last very shortly, as Britain elected a new Prime Minister, George Grenville, who was given a colossal amount of debt because of the war. The French and Indian war had cost Britain over 129 million pounds, and 4.5 million pounds per year with interest, (due to inflation this was a massive amount at the time equaling 21 billion and 720 million dollars respectively) in soldiers and weaponry, and due to the fact that this was the first time in nearly eighty years that England wasn’t at war with any other countries, they decided to move on into internal affairs, that included taxing. According to Aronson, “…people in England would not stand for any new taxes-they were already the most heavily taxed people in Europe,”, and since Grenville wouldn’t force any new taxes on people who were already paying so much, he decided
(America Past and Present, P. 108) These two decisions irritated the colonist because having British troops in the colonies made the colonist feel that, one they were being controlled, and two being obstructed from legitimate economic development. (America Past and Present, P. 108) After the war, Britain was also left with an overwhelming national debt. Because Great Britain had contributed so generously finically (so generously that they were left in debt), to a war that gained the British colonist territorial right to long disputed regions in North America. Britain shortly after felt that it was only fair that the colonist start raising revenues (through increased taxation) for the debt Britain was left with. Despite the common belief that taxes were what led to the American Revolution.