The DNA section acted as a negative control, and should not have growth as DNA is not supposed to grow on medium. The Trsf section was streaked out with the mutant mixed with DNA from the wild-type. This was the experimental group and where the transformation occurs as DNA was picked up by the bacteria and incorporated in the cell by mechanisms aforementioned. The Mut section acted as the positive control, which grew in the LB medium as the essential nutrients that the mutants are unable to synthesize are
- Transformation : it’s the process when bacterial cell are able to uptake the free DNA from their environment example : B. subtilis is an important for bacterial genetic study but they are not naturally competent , and the transform of these stain is possible only by highly unnatural means such as protoplast electroportion . - Conjugation : the process where bacterial cell transfer of plasmid and possibly genomic sequences from one cell to another cell by using a special structure called pilus . example : homoplasmid segregants , Bacteria can transfer genetic material, and thus drug resistance, to other bacteria via conjugation.. Main
An example is sulfomethoxazole [SMX] of the sulfonamide family: some bacteria utilize para-amino benzoic acid[PABA] a start-up product in producing folic acid –containing intermediates for DNA replication, using the enzyme dihydroptorate synthase to produce dihydroptorate. SMX blocks this enzyme, but these days, study has shown some bacteria that totally for-go this PABA pathway, these bacteria are now resistant to SMX because it really has nothing to work
They also inhibit lipid peroxidation in the liver. In combination with silymarin, a well-known hepatoprotectant and clove oil, garlic extract shows hepatoprotective activity in N-nitrosodiethylamine with CCl4 and lead-induced hepatotoxicity, respectively (Ajai et al., 2009). Overall,
Some bacteria are harmless, some can even be helpful for us for instance the bacteria that exist in our digestive system but there are also bacteria that are harmful to us. To be able to deal with that vast amount of microorganisms and especially the ones that may cause harm to us, a vast variety of antibiotics is needed. Antibiotics is a type of antimicrobial for preventing and treating bacterial infection. The way antibiotics work is by either kill or inhibit the growth or reproduction of the bacteria 9, despite the name, a number antibiotics are also known to be effective against protozoans and fungi. Antibiotics are commonly divided up into different classes, sorted according to their functions, chemical structure and spectrum of activity.
Successive ROS attacks are required to begin the prick the external membrane, and this will quickly lead the inactivation rate of bacteria. Presence of a shoulder is justified by the nature of the cumulative damage effect caused by photocatalytic action on the cytoplasmic membrane rather than an instant lethal effect 8, 55. ROS permeation rate: In general, ROS are having short life, and slow permeation rate. Due to this reason, they are not able to destroy bacterial cells immediately in inactivation process 4. Bacterial cell division: Presence of young E. coli cells in the culture or in the state of cell division may sluggish the number of bacterial density 56.
Preparations made from milk thistle have been approved by the German Commission E to treat mild gastrointestinal dysfunctions22,24. 7-Colon/Small Intestine. Kim and coworkers (1994) documented that silymarin and silybin are inhibitors of β-glucuronidases of intestinal bacteria, human feces, and rat microsomal fraction. Silymarin significantly inhibited the number of 1,2- dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon tumors in male rats12. 8-Sken :- Results from various experiments suggest that silymarin could be a promising chemopreventive and safe phytochemical that could be tested against skin cancer in humans, as well as a potential ingredient for sunscreens for protection against UV radiation.22 The people who suffer form psoriasis, Milk Thistle also helps to balance certain cellular chemicals in the skin which determine the rate in which skin cells are reproduced.