1998) of the parasitic cells. The quinine group of ubiquone gets reduced to the quinol and helps in transferring the electron through an oxidation reduction cycle (Tielens A G M and Hellemond J J V 1998; Kroger A. and Gwith M K 1973). Atovaquone too has a quinine group and thus, it can mimic ubiquone and binds selectively to the Q0 site of parasitic mitochondria thereby block the parasitic mitochondrial respiration (Ridley R G 2002). In the present study, we report binding characteristics of trans and cis-isomers of atovaquone with cytochrome bc1 of yeast using docking technique in order to address the basic question, why trans isomer of atovaquone has much higher drug potency than that of its cis isomer? Recently, Hunte et al reported ( Hunte et al.
INTRODUCTION Antibiotic as is any chemical or drug that can be used to effectively either halt the growth of, destroy toxins from or destroy the entire organism. They are said to be narrow or wide/extended in their range of activity depending on if they act on a limited number of organisms or a vast number of organisms respectively. Antibiotics resistance occurs when a microbe or a group of microbes develop a mechanism to reduce the potency or efficacy of a drug which was once effective as its treatment.  Most antibiotics in the market today usually target an exclusive biology of an organism in such a way that the drug will affect the organism specifically and do little or no harm to the host, so in any event an organism mutates genes coding
2.3. Biological activity of marine sponges 2.3.1. Anti-inflammatory compounds from sponges The compounds isolated from marine sponges have shown to arrest the microbial infection, physical damage in the human body. Manoalide used as an antibiotic is the first sesterterpenoid isolated form marine sponge Luffariella variabilis (Bennet, CF et al., 1987). Few varieties of sponges containing terpenoid compounds have been found to inhibit lipoxygenase, which is an enzyme involved in inflammatory action.
2. The mass is infiltrate by Inflammatory cell , plasma cells , lymphocyte 3. Pulp polyp is covered by stratified squamous epithelium Treatment: 1. R.C.T 2. extraction. Prognosis : prognosis of pulp polyp is unfavorable , but is favorable after R.C.T Gangrenous necrosis of the pulp: Untreated pulpitis will result in complete necrosis of the pulp tissue, this is defined as necrosis of the tissue due to ischemia with super imposed bacterial tissue.
Oxacillin: This antibiotic act to the cell of the bacteria, it block the growth of the cell wall which result in kill the bacteria. Usually it administered by injection. Hypothesis: For mezlocillin I guess it will not work as well as other antibiotics because it has higher chance at gram negative compared to gram positive, which are Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus subtilis. Also penicillin has been used for many year because of it continuously use many bacteria has got resistance to it and I think it will not work as good as other antibiotic which are mentioned here . Other than these two I guess one of the antibiotic will work quite fine as they have quite unique and powerful way to stop or kill the bacteria, so one way or another one antibiotic will sure to get a good result.
Endospore stain is the fourth staining method used to add contrast. “Bacteria capable of producing endospores do not do so uniformly during their culture’s growth. Sporulation is done in response to nutrient depletion” (Leboffe). The theory to stain endospores cells is that keratin in the spore resist the stain so a more extreme measure must be taken to stain the bacteria. Malachite Green, the primary stain, is forced into the spore by steaming the bacterial emulsion (Leboffe).
Expression of the Mex systems of P. aeruginosa is greatest when the bacteria are stressed such as in osmotic shock or growth in a nutrient-poor medium. Unregulated over-expression of efflux pumps is a great disadvantage to the micro-organism as toxic substrates could be exported and there could be loss of nutrients and metabolic
RESEARCH PLAN Biofilm Inhibition of Chitosan/Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit Hydrogel Film on Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Pseudomnas aeruginosa A. RATIONALE Biofilm is a commonly found multicellular structure in bacteria where cells are attached to each other and embedded in an extracellular polymeric substance (Archer, Mazaitis, Costerton, Leid, Powers and Shirtliff, 2011) making it more resistant to antifungal drugs because of its complex structure and extracellular matrix (ECM) (Fanning and Mitchell, 2012). Also, presence of persister cells shuts down the microbial targets of the antibiotics that leads to chronic disease (Archer et al., 2011). Biofilm is the cause of resistance against antimicrobial agents and it protects cells from the host immune
Therefore, the treatment of E.coli infections is increasingly becoming difficult. It is necessary to know the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of pathogenic E.coli to select the correct antibiotic(s) for the proper treatment of the infections. (5) E.coli is a Gram negative, motile, nonsporing, lactose fermenting bacillus. The ability of E.coli to cause extraintestinal infections depends largely on several virulence factors, which help in survival of E.coli under adverse conditions present in those
By disruption some protein adherent cells, using trypsin treatment helps cells break down. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are an endotoxin and also the major component of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. In the research laboratory, LPS have been used to secretion of growth promoting factors and induce synthesis. Moreover, because of its connection to septicemia, LPS has been to identify possible inhibitors