According to the series of test that my group ran for our unknown specimen, we had a match with the bacteria known as Alcaligenes Faecalis. This bacterium belongs to one of the major group of gram-negative bacteria (Phylum Proteobacteria). Alcaligenes Faecalis (Genus, species) is a rod shaped (bacillus), 0.5-1.2 x 1.0-3.0 µm, round with scalloped margin (colony configuration growth), motile (with one to nine peritrichous flagella), gram-negative, non-fermentative bacteria, obligate aerobic, having oxygen as the principal terminal electron acceptor in the electron transport chain (ETC). We consider we have a match with the species Alcaligenes Faecalis because of the following reasons: Fermentation tests performed (Durham sugars) were negative, which indicate that our bacteria use a different metabolic means for growth (non-fermentative gram-negative bacteria). …show more content…
We got negative for indole (no production of indole, pyruvic acid and ammonia), negative for Methyl Red (our bacteria does not perform mixed-acid fermentation when supplied glucose), negative for Voges-Proskauer (no fermentation of glucose in order to produce 2,3-Butanediol-Butanediol fermentation), but positive for Citrate utilization, which means our bacteria uses citrate as a sole carbon source and energy. Something interesting here is that according to the lab textbook organism that degrade citrate must also use ammonium salts, and in the process, they produce ammonia that causes the medium to become alkaline (under this condition the medium turns to deep Prussian blue, indicating the utilization of citrate). The genus Alcaligenes is well known for being alkali-producing
The unknown bacteria was then tested on multiple selective and differential media. Growth was present on the MacConkey Agar and the colonies were the same color as the plate, which told me my bacteria was gram negative and did not ferment lactose. There was no growth on the Mannitol Salt Agar, and this told me the unknown was not salt tolerant and did not
Enterobacteriaceae - Enterobacteriacaea is a family of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are usually motile and consist of saprophytes and parasites of worldwide distribution. They can be found in soil, water, plants and animals. Q2I: Mutation - Mutation is an inheritable change in the base sequence of the genome of an organism. Question Set 3: Q3A: The authors hypothesized that colistin resistance was spreading by horizontal gene transfer as opposed to mutation.
The purpose of this lab report is to employ a myriad of skills, tools and, methods learned throughout this semester to perform the appropriate tests for the identification of the assigned unknown bacteria. Add more background information here!!! The most important tools and techniques used during this identification include aseptic technique, microscopic examination and, the use of selective and differential media. Aseptic technique is an important tool for microbiologists. It is imperative that aseptic technique is maintained throughout the length of any test to avoid any cross-contamination that may lead to inaccurate results.
Being able to identify unknown microbes from systematic testing is what makes the field of microbiology so important, especially in infectious disease control. Using the testing procedure laid out by the microbiology field we are able to identify unknown bacteria present in our everyday lives, and along the way learn a lot about their characteristics that separate them from other types of bacteria. Being able to do this is vital in order for us to understand why microbes are present in certain places, how they are able to grow and what restricts their growth, that way they can be combatted if necessary. These techniques for determining unknowns are also important for isolating and testing infectious disease microbes in order to prevent spreading. Another important aspect of being able to identify unknown microbes is the
These microorganisms are used to teach us how multicellular organisms came to be and how they can survive today. These small, microscopic organisms are so unique that the identification of them is paramount in the advancements of science. Knowing the chemical makeup, the shape, and the biochemical processes is important in identifying these organisms to understand how they survive and where. A number of tests can be ran on an unknown bacteria to determine their ideal
The flasks without inoculum served as control and were incubated in triplicate at 28±2°C for 14 days in an orbital incubator shaker at 130 rpm. The samples were collected after every 48 h to evaluate soluble phosphorus in the culture supernatant following the molybdenum-blue method of Murphy and Riley (1962). pH of sample was also recorded using a pH meter. 2.4 Culture Identification For the molecular identification of K7 strain, total DNA was extracted by using ZR Fungal/Bacteria DNA kit (Zymo- Research Corporation, CA, USA) Mini Prep following the manufacture’s standard protocol. Thereafter, the amplified fragments were sent to NFCCI, Agharkar Research Institute, Pune, India for DNA sequencing.
The second ½ of the organism was used for gram staining. The gram stain method was performed on the unknown organism per lab manual page 42 and two gram stain reactions were identified. Organism B was gram positive cocci in grape like clusters. Because organism B was positive I could eliminate Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes and Proteus vulgaris because these bacteria would be rod shapes. Organism A was gram negative pink rod shaped and because of gram positive morphology I could eliminate Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus lactis and Bacillus subtilis.
After a gram stain was done unknown #257 was identified as a gram positive organism because when observed under the microscope the organism appeared purple with cocci in clusters. The organism was also catalase positive which means that it produced enzyme catalase and bubbled when hydrogen peroxide was added to it. Three test were conducted based on the result of the gram staining procedure. Blood agar with a Novobiocin disk was chosen as well as DNase (DNA) and Mannitol Salts (MSA) agar. The Blood agar is a bright red, opaque plate and the streaking or the inoculation technique was a modified streaking for isolation with a heavy quadrant one.
INTRODUCTION This assignment is about the study of the effect of agonist and different concentration on guinea pig ileum and it will consist of method, graph results and discussion. Drug is defined as a chemical that has both biological and pharmacological effects on human. Its branch is pharmacology which can be divided into two branches namely pharmacodynamics and pharmaco kinetics. (C. Stephen and W. Robin (2010)) Pharmaco dynamic is about what drug does to the body and pharmaco kinetics is the study of what the body does to the drug.
My unknown mixture of bacteria was red in color. It was Coccus bacteria, which is round in shape. Its dimensions were 2.5 micrometers on 40x small division lens. Heterocysts are thick walled specialized cells. They are responsible for nitrogen fixation.
After experiment on microscope under oil immersion, I learned that my Unknown is gram positive. Under the lens, the bacteria appears in purple color. Its morphology is cocci arranged in cluster. However, during decolorizing process, I put too much alcohol to the crystal violet-iodine complex making the color overly removed. That led to the result of my gram positive has slightly redish
Then, tests are performed to determine if the products of aerobic and anaerobic respiration are present in the flasks. The citric acid cycle consists of a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of ATP (Biology). The tests detect the presence of carbon dioxide and ethanol. Carbon dioxide should be present irrespective of the type of respiration taking place, but ethanol is present only if fermentation has occurred. Another factor that can indicate whether fermentation occurred or cellular respiration occurred is the amount of glucose utilized during incubation.
Gram- negative bacteria are a group of bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in Gram staining method of bacterial differentiation (Wikipedia, n.d.). They are characterised by their smaller peptidoglycan comprising about 2%- 10% of the cell wall, lack of teichoic acid, an outer membrane and a not highly cross-linked and thin peptidoglycan
The media used in this experiment was Trypticase nitrate broth. The reagents used (A and B) were sulfanilic acid and alpha-naphthylamine (respectively). Using aseptic technique, the bacterium (16A and 16B) were inoculated into labeled broth test tubes. The tubes were incubated for 48 hours at 37 degrees Celsius. When the incubation was complete 5 drops of reagent A and 5 drops of reagent B were added to each of the broths.