Causes Of Natural Disaster

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Natural disasters are sudden and major adverse events caused by forces of environment that result in destruction of human life and infectious organisms, including the destruction of property. These natural processes of Earth causes a wide range of aftermaths, for instance the earthquakes, flood, tsunamis, windstorms, volcanic eruptions and other geologic processes. According to Chand (2014), the Himalayan Tsunami that happened in Uttarakhand has caused a total of 5,748 people been presumed dead by the State Govt. and hundreds of buildings and houses lay in ruins. The most prominent of natural disasters will be examined including hydrological, geological, and climatological disaster (refer to Figure 1 in Appendix 1).
The first type of natural
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The number of flood disaster keeps increasing since 1960s and the increase become more significant since early 1990s (Zevenbergen et al., 2011). There are many causes that lead to flood. One of the factors is due to heavy rain. It can cause flash flood at certain place when the rainfall rate exceeds the capacity of river/lake. During southwest monsoon season, the wind brings rain and thus heavy rainfall occurs (Ghosh & Mistri, 2015). Besides that, melting of snow or ice also lead to the occurrence of flood. Nowadays, world has become warmer due to the increase of temperature. As a result of rising temperature, ice and snow melt and cause a massive movement of water. Flood brings many negative impacts to the society, one of it is the health effect that can lead to death. Floodwater contains bacteria that will causes diseases. Furthermore, it also contaminates the drinking water and agriculture plants, make them unsafe to be consumed by human beings. In Bennet’s study (1970), the researcher found that the mortality rate at the flooded area in Bristol, United Kingdom had increase 50% compared to the non-flooded area in 12 month period.…show more content…
Landslide is one of the geological disaster and it is defined as the downslope transport of a mass of rock or soil. There are many kinds of movement like falls, slides, topples, lateral spread, and flows (World Health Organization, n.d). Apart from that, it is due to gravitational and other kinds of shear stresses within a slope surpass the shear strength (resist to shearing) of the matter that from the slope (Meng, 2014). In the same manner, shear stresses can be accumulated by over steepening of the bed of slope, such as via the natural erosion or the process of excavating, and loading of slope, such as by an inflow of water, an increase above the normal levels of groundwater table, or the collection of debris on the surface of slope. Furthermore, landslides can be the activated or as the secondary effect of short-term stresses like earthquakes and rainstorms (World Health Organization, n.d). Meanwhile, based on the study of Kyoji Sassa (as cited in Qiu, 2014), a geologist at Kyoto University in Japan, his team have shown that how the poor-water pressure and the strength of slope matter alter with increasing rain by a lab-based landslide simulator. Then, the researcher also proved the initiation and movement of a slide by feeding the data into a computer model designed. Tourism urban modernization development in coastal urban area is one of the causes of geological disasters, all the roads and household which are built

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