The reserve source of the labor force which were the women, the elderly and the people in rural areas were also encouraged to participate in the workforce. Those solutions for the shortage of labor eventually made Japan able to function without a large supply of foreign workers, which identify Japan as an unusual "negative" case of migration. This is also the reason why the general theories of migration that were developed from the context of Western countries could not apply to the case of Japan. Bartram suggests that rather than using the most general theories of migration developed in the Western world to explain this phenomenon, other factors could be considered such as cultural factor. For example, the idea of homogeneous nation has refrained Japan from getting people from the outside.
Under Dutch rule, higher classes faced fewer hardships but lower classes encountered harsh treatment, great exploitation, a deterioration of living condition and heavy tax burdens (lowensteyn). All of those impacts that the Dutch had in society of Indonesia do not seem influential these days. It is because today, most countries interact with the other countries globally that it is hard to find their own unique traditions and culture. The other reason that the impact of the Dutch is not well seen is because the time after the colonialism of Dutch passed quite a lot. During the independent years, Indonesia developed traditions on their own.
Export and Import Condition In Indonesia Prioritizing exports to Indonesia has been boosted since 1983. Since then, exports of concern in increasing economic growth along with the change of industrialization strategy of supression on industrial import substitution to export promotion industry. Domestic consumers buying imported goods or foreign consumers to buying domestic goods, now its become something that looks prevalent and common in a country. Competition is tight among products. Other than price, quality or goods be the determining factor of competitiveness
PBCL As Indonesia’s population is over 80% Muslim, the country’s alcoholic beverages industry is small and the sale of alcoholic drinks is tightly regulated. There is a 170% tax on alcohol imports which the government justifies on the moral and social grounds, represents a considerable challenge for local retailers. Local companies holding licenses to manufacture alcoholic drinks include Multi Bintang Indonesia and Delta Djakarta for beer and Ultra Prima Abadi for wines and spirits. San Miguel of Philippines has a brewery in Indonesia and its Anker Bir brand commands second highest sales in the country behind Bintang. Multi Bintang has successfully launched non alcoholic beers amied at Muslims.
According to Mamas, Jones and Sastrasuanda (2001, p. 6), in large cities such as Indonesia, a major factor of population growth is the movement of people from urban areas to the fringe areas. Reclassification of rural to urban areas is also another factor that causes a high number of population growths in Jakarta. Urban changes in Indonesia can be seen especially in metropolitan areas from the increase of the number of people who live in the urban area and due to the high number of people in the big city, so they start to move away from it which causes urban belts develop around the big cities. There are a variety of economic activities in the urban belt, including agricultural and industrial
Geographical location of Indonesia in Southeast Asia. Geography Tanah Air Kita, which means “Our Land and Water”, is what Indonesians call their country due to its geographical condition which consists of 18,307 islands. Indonesia is the largest archipelago in the world stretching some 2,000 kilometers from North to South and more than 5,000 kilometers from East to West. The archipelago extends over more than one-tenth of the Equator between Southeast Asia and Australia. The largest islands are the Kalimantan provinces on Borneo, Sumatra, Papua, Sulawesi and Java (where Jakarta is located).
So, we can say that this fast rate of rural to urban migration in South Asia is due to above mentioned push factors. At the same time the migration of rural people also contributing towards the development of South Asian Countries. Because of following reasons: Rural-urban migration
Industrialisation brought with it the hope of a brighter future and more prosperity. The shift from agriculture to industry heralded a new change. The increased focus on new technology and the push towards capital intensive production drove the need for cheaper labour which was often derived from the rural areas. This led to a mass exodus of people from the rural areas into the urban areas in search for a better life thus fuelling urbanisation. Industrialisation thus in a way contributed to urbanisation and both had tremendous impacts on the nature of family relationships.
Start from that time, Malaysia’s economy raise gradually. The current population of Malaysia is around 30 million where the residents are separately living in Peninsula and East Malaysia. Malaysia was considered as the 29th largest economy in the world that powered its own economic growth. In Malaysia, the soils are not really fertile but the humid tropical climate creates good conditions for plant growth. Besides that, most of the area in Malaysia was covered in
Urbanization Urbanization has been a major driver of internal migration in many countries and has overtaken other factors in many Asian locations . Rates of urbanization influence rural- urban wage differences: an increase in the demand for labour in urban areas can push up urban wages and increase migration. Rural-urban differences in average incomes increased in many South and East Asian countries during the 1990s, especially in China and fell in most African countries (IFAD, 2001). Current ESCAP projections are that urbanization rates in South and South-West Asia will soon exceed other regions in Asia. Urbanization is progressing throughout Africa albeit more slowly: in 1960, 18 per cent of the population lived in urban centers (i.e.