Galvanometer gives the deflection which is proportional to the electric current flowing through it. It works as an actuator by producing a rotary deflection. Also, known as a (pointer) in response to electric current flowing through a coil in a constant magnetic
Real deviation:-This deviation from the law occurs at high concentration of the absorbing species. The absorptivity ε of the solution changes with concentration depending on the refractive index η of the solution and since refractive index varies considerably at concentration higher than 10-3 M, absorptivity also varies. Beer-Lambert law is based on the assumption of an incident beam of monochromatic radiation and even the best monochromator system provides only polychromatic beam of radiation spread over a few wavelengths. 2. Chemical deviation: - This deviation occurs due to presence of more than one absorbing species in the sample.
The distance from one wave peak to another is known as wavelength, which also can be measured in meters. The number of waves that pass by each second is known as frequency. As frequency and wavelength are inversely related, their multiplication always is a constant, like the speed of light. The position of any specific occurrence of an Electromagnetic radiation on the electromagnetic spectrum is determined by its wavelength and frequency. c=λvc=λv is used to determine the conversion of a wavelength of a
This interaction can only occur when the photons energy interacts with the inner shell electrons in order to displace it . The photons energy has to be equal to or greater than the electrons binding energy it will be hitting in order for displacement to happen. Electron displacement is also known as a photoelectron (Shepard 2003). If the x-ray photons energy is fifty KeV or lower, the interaction will occur better rather than if the KeV was greater than fifty. If the KeV is greater than fifty, the photons will have too much energy and will create scatter, which could lead to the energy going through another interaction or it could just continue colliding into another electron.
Distinction must be drawn at this point between ionizing and nonionizing radiation especially with regard to their interaction with biological systems. Ionizing radiation has the ability to damage components of cells. Nonionizing radiation, on the other hand, such as radio waves and microwaves do not have similar capabilities and can at best cause heating of tissues. This claim though has been seriously doubted after a thorough scientific scrutiny, as we shall see later. Electric fields are easily shielded or weakened by walls and other objects, whereas magnetic fields can pass through buildings, living things, and most other materials.
Index 1. Introduction Spectroscopy is a term which refers to the interactions of various types of electromagnetic radiation with matter. It is also a study of the absorption and emission of light and other radiation by matter. Dependence of this process related to the wavelength of the radiation. Spectrometers are used to measure the properties of light over a specific portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Microwaves have frequencies of 300MHz to 300GHz. Heinrich Hertz also discovered microwaves, together with radio waves. Microwaves do not have wavelengths in the micrometre range, but the suffix '-micro' refers to the waves being smaller than radio waves as they have shorter wavelengths. The wavelengths range from 1mm to
The experimental value yielded a result of y = -100x + 10 and the theoretical yielded a -100 V/m. The percent error between the two values was 0.00%. The experiment showed that the theory of the relationship between equipotential lines and electric field lines hold true. Introduction: The objective of this lab was to analyze the nature of electric fields formed by two dipoles and two parallel line conductors using a digital voltmeter. The purpose is to test the theory that states equipotential lines always run perpendicular to electric field lines.
The atoms are slowed down my photons using the conservation of momentum. The photons are at lower energies than needed by the atoms for energy transitions. When the photon and atom are moving towards each other the energy of the photon looks more like the one needed for transitioning because of the doppler effect. The slowing down happens after many absorb and release actions by the atom, thereby losing momentum. Introduction of a varying magnetic field will shift the energy levels of the atom making it more probable for them to absorb the photons.