Civilization And Kafka's Analysis

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In Freud’s Civilization and its Discontents, Freud states that the definition of happiness is dependent on the individual and is influenced by choices the individual makes (Freud 54). On the other hand, in Kafka’s ¬Metamorphosis, Kafka does not explicitly state what happiness is but shows it through the life of Gregor, which allows for a single interpretation of happiness. Using Freud’s outline of happiness, one can study and understand Kafka’s interpretation of happiness from Metamorphosis and realize that both interpret happiness in the same way. Both Freud’s Civilization and its Discontents and Kafka’s ¬Metamorphosis shows that happiness can be found through love, but can be interfered by how one’s body is and from relations to other…show more content…
Before mentioning love as the ultimate way to gaining happiness, Freud lists out that unhappiness can happen from one’s body, the external world, and “relations to other men” (Freud 44). Although Freud states that unhappiness can be more easily attained from one’s body, external world, and relations to others, love transcends these three factors of unhappiness, and will instead, give one happiness instead of unhappiness. In the quote above, Freud says that love combines the three factors of unhappiness and adds affection to that object or person, creating an emotional relationship. From Freud’s understanding of love, Kafka would also agree that love is the ultimate form of happiness. In Metamorphosis, Gregor’s love for his sister, Grete, is what brings him happiness and the ultimate reason why he stays alive. His love for his sister, is what allows him to continue living as a transformed bug, but once his sister rejects Gregor saying, “He must go… this creature…show more content…
In Civilization and its Discontents, Freud states the two ways that the body can bring unhappiness. The first is the physical aspect, in that the body is “doomed to decay and dissolution and which cannot even do without pain and anxiety as warning signals” (Freud 44). As Freud says, the body is always dying once someone is born. The reason why it may look like the body is not dying is because the body is constantly replacing the dead cells. Freud also states that the body is capable of feeling pain and experiencing emotions. It is important for the body to feel pain because nerve cells let out pain signals to indicate something is wrong. It is also important for the body to feel emotions so the person can feel the tendencies to run for their life or a sense of importance. As a result, these physical qualities of the body can allow unhappiness when one feels too much pain that is unbearable, or when one cannot sleep because they are too stressed. The second way the body brings unhappiness is through the sense of beauty, where “beauty presents itself to [people’s] sense and [peoples] judgment” (Freud 53). People’s sense of beauty to themselves or others is perceived through their own
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