Coffee In Ethiopia Case Study

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Introduction
Ethiopia is the origin of Arabica coffee and the 5th largest coffee producing country in the world (ICO, 2013). Coffee is Ethiopia’s most important export crop contributing 24 % of the country’s foreign currency income (Minten et al., 2014).
An estimated 30% of Ethiopia’s coffee production originates from forest coffee cultivation systems, contributing about 10 to 20% of the country’s total export earnings. Coffee has the advantage that it originates from an organic and shaded production area – a quality increasingly important for coffee drinkers worldwide. The montane rainforests in Southern Ethiopia are the only place in the world where coffee still grows wild in its natural habitat. For this reason, these areas require protection (stellmacher et al.,2010).Indigenous communities have been utilizing wild coffee for centuries, and the art of preparing coffee is a central element of the Ethiopian culture.
Depending on intensity of management, level of
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forest coffee, semi - forest coffee, garden coffee, and plantation coffee (Gole et al.,2000). Forest coffee is a wild coffee grown under the shade of natural forest trees and it does not have a defined owner. Semi-forest coffee farming is a system where farmers thin and select forest trees to let sufficient sunlight to the coffee trees and to provide adequate shade. A farmer who prunes and weeds the forest area once a year claims to be the owner of the semi-forest coffee (Senbeta and Denich,2006). Garden coffee normally found in the vicinity (near) of a farmer’s residence. It normally fertilized with organic material and usually inter-cropped with other crops. The government or private investors for export purposes plant Plantation coffee. Fertilizers and herbicides usually used in the coffee plantation farming system. Ethiopia Small-scale holdings equal to or greater than 95% of total coffee production(USAID,

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