The primary consumer only obtains around 10% of the producer’s energy as they may not eat the whole entity or energy might be lost through waste. The population of the largest and most significant vertebrate plants feeds, including sea turtles, dugongs, have been severely decimated by the impacts of humans on the reef. The loss of these vital animals has and will more severely disturb the coral reef food web in a significant manner, although the specific impacts are not clear
Corals under stress due to changes in PH levels or temperature of the water will expel the algae (zooxanthellae) living within their tissues causing the coral to turn completely white. This is called coral bleaching. Another cause of coral bleaching is produced formation water, an effluent of offshore oil and gas industries that cause significant bleaching ( White et al .2012) .When a coral bleaches, it is not dead. Corals can survive a bleaching event, but they are under more stress and are subject to mortality. Mortality amongst corals has appeared to be the breakdown of the symbiotic association between the zooxanthellae and the coral host.
This means that the reefs are losing their rigid structures. The reefs still have hope to become recovered from the effects of bleaching. The document states that “for the recovered reef, live coral cover was comparable to the undisturbed reefs across all zones and exposures” which shows that a successful coral recovery can result in the corals returning to their natural state before the bleaching process (Graham). These two studies support each other because the Chauka’s study shows that light exposure due to the lack of turbidity results in coral bleaching while Graham’s study shows that the sloped and crested reefs experience less light exposure resulting in less coral bleaching. Another study by Emily Hardman, a professor of the School of Ocean Sciences at the University of Wales, discusses the effects of coral bleaching on the reefs in Rodrigues which are located in the Indian Ocean.
II. FACTORS CAUSING THE DECREASING OF OYSTER REEFS. Nowadays in many literature are represented the most important threats for oyster beds, as overharvest, development and pollution, changes in freshwater inflows, erosion from boats, diseases, invasive species, global change… (Coen et al. 2000; Seavey et al. 2011; Gregalis et al.
Bartolome Island The waters off of Bartolome Island are home to an amazing array of marine life, corral reefs, and underwater cliffs that make diving here an adventure. Large schools of fish, rays, white-tipped reef sharks, sea turtles, eels, sea lions, red-lipped batfish, are often seen during the descent. At ten meters, there is a volcanic shelf that leads to deeper underwater cliffs. This site is recommended for those who have logged a number of dives and are comfortable with moderate currents. Beagle Located two hours from the camp close to Santiago and Bartolome Islands, the Beagle dive is an eye-opening excursion into the fish of the Galapagos Marine Reserve.
Provided that sharks have not been fished out of certain areas it is reasonable to assume that their disappearance would be a result of the destruction of a suitable habitat. The fact that shark species are so diverse and inhabit every ocean on the planet makes them key players essential to the ocean environment. Yet despite their importance in the marine food-chain they remain a low conservation priority. For all their evolutionary success and apparent menace, sharks are incredibly fragile, unable to withstand the increased pressures forced on them by the voracious world fishing industries. This is partly due to the fact that sharks are slow growing animals that mature late, live long, and have a low reproduction
Dispersants cause the oil to break up into smaller droplets, which become miscible in water. However, these dispersants may result in more ecological harm than good. The chemicals contain nonbiodegradable toxins that can kill fish and migrate great distances. Dispersants also are blamed for the massive oil plumes several hundreds of feet underwater, harmful to all aquatic life, especially fish larvae and filter feeders. Moreover, because of the large volume of oil that has been spilled, the amount of dispersant required and the amount of oil dispersed simply suppresses the problem, rather than solving
This issue is not a new problem; coral bleaching has had a substantial effect on coral for many years. “In 2005, the U.S lost half of its coral reefs in the Caribbean in one year due to a massive bleaching event”(National Ocean Service). Another article states that in January 2010, cold-water temperatures in the Florida Keys caused a coral bleaching event that resulted in some coral death. Researchers have evaluated the cold-stress of the water will make coral more susceptible to disease, in the same way warmer water impact coral. Luckily there are things that we can do to help stop this
Lizeth Felix-Guzman AVID August 9, 2014 Marine Biologist A marine biologist refers to anyone who studies or works with animals or plants that live in salt water from the tiniest microbes and plankton to the largest whales, and every species in between. Marine biologist also works towards discovering all the unknown plants and animals that live in the depths of the sea. Marine biologist study life in the oceans, they study the process of how marine organisms develop and relate to each other and how they adapt to their environment and interact with it (Marine).Studying this is essential in order for them to be preserved. Usually marine biologists have more specific job titles such as an ichthyologist, cetologist, marine mammal trainer,
How the oceans may die is crucial to understand in order for them to be preserved for the survival of the planet. Numerous human activities generate a staggering amount of grave complications for the oceans and its crucial marine life. One of the most direct human activities that causes rapid decline in marine populations is overfishing. Some of the species
To those residing on the eastern coast near Maryland, Virginia, and Pennsylvania, the problem of the Chesapeake Bay is obvious. The bay lacks water clarity, has difficulties sustaining aquatic life, and faces population threatening issues like dead zones and algae blooms. There are a myriad of ways in which the bay is polluted, however the most direct link to the bay’s poor water clarity is the overflowing amounts of nutrient and sediment pollution. Bay clarity is crucial, not only for a pretty appearance, but also for the health of the bay grasses and fish living in the bay. Sediment and nutrient pollution is a huge contributor to the poor water quality in the bay.
To protect the Mako Shark species, they are protected by U.S. waters(Beardsley, 2015). Mako sharks are fascinating animals. They have long, slim bodies to enable them to swim at fast speeds. Makos live all around the world in central oceans. They have special adaptations they use to help them survive.
The article states that there is a rapid decline in the population of sea otters, the mammals found along the coast of California to Alaska. The article claims that the reason for the declination is because of environmental pollution and provides two reasons of support. However, the speaker refutes that the dwindling is due to predation. First, the reading claims that environmental pollution is the most likely cause because oil rigs found along the coast cause pollution to a greater extent. Further, the increased in chemical levels decreases the immune strength of the sea otters which indirectly leads to death.