About eighteen percent of youth referred to the juvenile court are held in detention, awaiting the outcome of their cases. Juveniles charged with drug or personal crimes are mostly likely to be charged With public order and property crimes less likely to get detention. Just as the use of detention has dramatically increased over time, informal adjustment of cases has declined over time, and formal hearings now account for the process in more than half of all juvenile cases. These two trends show the increasing formality of juvenile justice system in response. In cases where a petition has been filed, youth progress to the adjudicatory stage(equivalent to the criminal trial).If a youth is found guilty or plead guilty , he or she is adjudicated to felonious, or adjudication may be withheld contingent upon the youth completion of some program or sanction.
This new law caused an increase from an estimated 300,000 to 2 million prison inmates over the course of the last two decades. (Michelle Alexander, 2010) According to Rebecca C. Hatey and Jennifer L. Eberhdt of Stanford University, California holds only 7% of African American population but 45% of California’s prison inmates are African American under the three strikes law. (Racial Disparities in Incarceration Increase Acceptance of Punitive Policies 2014) Michelle Alexander writes that the mass incarceration of the 1990’s created a new “racial caste system” and extreme funding for the criminal system. (Michelle Alexander, 2010:58) The three strikes law targeted the communities affluent with minority groups. At the turn of the 21st century the majority that entered the prison system were African Americans and Latinos.
According to statistics, approximately two million juveniles under the age of 18 in the United States are arrested each year. Over 600,000 of them are placed in detention centers annually and approximately 95,000 reside in secure juvenile correctional settings on any given day. Further numbers suggest that the United States leads all industrialized nations worldwide in juvenile incarcerations. With criminal records also come detrimental consequences including: difficulty of finding employment, loss of public housing, immigration concerns, increased drop-out rates and the potential of recidivism. Research on the development of the juvenile brain and the negative consequences that come with focusing solely on commitment into a facility make
In today’s world there are countless crimes committed every single day. “In 2015, there were 1.42 million total arrests, at a rate of 3,641 arrests per 100,000 residents” (State of California, Department of Justice). Grown adults are not the only people being arrested every year, there are also juveniles, children, being arrested every day. One topic of controversy today is whether or not juveniles who commit these crimes should be tried as adults in criminal court. There are many differences between the justice system for adults and the justice system for juveniles.
“The number of teenagers under eighteen arrested for murder has risen over one hundred fifty percent from 1985 to 1994. Id. This is a disturbing trend, especially in light of the fact that Justice Department surveys consistently show that less than half of all crime, including crimes of violence, is reported to the police.” ("102. Juvenile Crime Facts.") These statistics are alarming and it makes a big issue for our society.
Chapter 1 Definition, Measurements and Process introduces the history of the juvenile justice system and discusses the issues surrounding the transitioning of a child to an adult. The chapter also covers challenges the juvenile system faces, how delinquency and crime are measured based on the Uniform Crime Reports, self-report studies, and victimization surveys. The measure of youths as delinquents and victims is also discussed, as is a typology of juvenile delinquents. In 1899, the first juvenile court was established. Its establishment was solely based on the principle that children develop differently than adults so they therefore need to be treated differently.
Children experience violence, through witnessing gang violence at school, violence at home, and public lynching. In a United Nations Refugee Agency study of four hundred unaccompanied minors, forty-eight percent experienced violence by crime-organized groups, twenty-two percent experienced abuse at home, and thirty nine percent were recruited into human smuggling. Violence, specifically gang violence, homicides, and sexual abuse, has increased within the past decade, and the homicide rate doubled between 2000 and 2006. As a result, it can be less dangerous to migrate to the United States than to stay in Guatemala. In an interview on National Public Radio, Jose Alberto Lima Barrera, a child migrant, says “it’s scarier here than making the dangerous trek through Mexico”.
“Today, more than 27,000 younglings are reported to have been abused” (“Eleven Facts About Child Abuse”,2016). Hurting the juvenile in the Victorian Era involved adolescents being neglected as harmed in emotional and physical ways. Although that is now true in the present, the issue has been considered more and there are ways to get help, like calling a hotline or contacting a trusted adult. There are many similarities
In Ken Stier’s article, “Getting the Juvenile-Justice System to Grow Up”, in Time Magazine, he affirms the fact that every year, some 200,000 youths are tried, sentenced or incarcerated as adults. He also discusses how many advocates and academics argue that juveniles are not being given enough of a chance to turn their lives around after committing minor offenses. In agreement with Stier, I consider that juveniles have greater possibility than adults to make a change in their lives with the right help, counseling and rehabilitation. A 14-year-old from Wilkes-Barre, for instance, spent a year in a Glen Mills detention facility for the offense of stealing loose change from unlocked cars to buy a bag of chips; he was only set free after public-interest lawyers challenged the constitutionality of the punishment. Stier also states; there is new brain research showing that the full development of the frontal lobe, where rational judgments are made, does not occur until the early to
Significant declines include sharp drops from previous years in daily alcohol use by 10th and 12th graders (0.9 percent and 2.2 percent, respectively, in 2013). In 2013, 22.1 percent of high school seniors reported binge drinking (defined as 5 or more drinks in a row in the past 2 weeks)—a drop of almost one-third since the late
There are many victims of unfortunate circumstances in the world today, yet some of these results could have been easily avoided. In the novel, Just Mercy, the author Bryan Stevenson addresses many cases in which children under the age of 18 are incarcerated within the adult criminal justice system. By treating children as adults in the criminal justice system their innocence and undeveloped person, become criminalized. These children become dehumanized and only viewed as full-fledged criminals and as a result society offers no chance sympathy towards them. Stevenson argues that children tried as adults have become damaged and traumatized by this system of injustice.