Semi-compatibilism is a view proposed by John Martin Fischer which only differs from compatibilism in the area of regulative control and moral responsibility. Fischer states that regulative control stems from the view of moral responsibility and is summarized as an agent who has alternative actions available to them. Agents can have guidance control even when they have no alternate possibilities available, and that moral responsibility is a product of the actual events in the causal sequence. The difference in semi-compatibilism from compatibilism is shown through the throwing out of regulative control in order to replace it with guidance control. Semi-compatibilism allows us to confidently attribute moral responsibility even if we are unsure about determinism.
In order to compare and contrast determinism/incompatibilism and soft determinism/compatibilism, one should probably define them first. Determinism can be defined as whatever happens necessarily, and that every event has a cause. Determinism should be distinguished from fatalism though. Fatalism, is the belief that whatever happens, is a result of fate. Determinism allows for many causes, but it doesn’t permit the single possibility that something happens as a result of no cause, (Daniel).
In a sense, causality is needed for free will to exist, because an essential part of free will is the idea that we cause our own actions. In order to answer this, we must define the difference between actions and choices. Actions are the effects of a cause known as free will. Free will causes our actions by the choices we make. We choose many things that influence our lives, such as beliefs, movements, the way we act and the things we do.
Objection three states, “Further, the end is the term of action. But actions are of individuals. Now although men agree in their specific nature, yet they differ in things pertaining to individuals” (358). In this objection, the doubt is essentially that humans cannot all have the same last end because the last end is an action and actions are decided by the individual. To explain away this objection, Aquinas points out that “actions are of individuals, yet their first principle of action is nature, which tends to one thing” (359).
Compatibilism also argue that we are free because we choose our own actions internal to ourselves even when there is a restriction that hinders you to choose your own choice. Existentialism is also a view that argues if to be in control of ourselves, then that means that we are masters of ourselves and therefore make us free. Is compatibilism the right view? Compatibilism argues that all our actions are predetermined and that there will be a point where we can choose for ourselves. This view is relevant as we have social responsibility for the actions we have for example A man were to vote for the B party and the B party had a device installed in his mind that whenever he will choose to vote for the C party he will be forced to vote for B party.
In this essay, I will argue from a compatibilist perspective arguing that free will does exist, and it is consistent with determinism. Compatibilism means that free will can exist with determinism . Incompatibilism means that it is not possible for free will to exist with determinism . Free will occurs when people’s actions come from their second order volition . Second order desires requires you to first desire something, and to then have a desire about your first desire .
In "Human Freedom and the Self", Roderick Chisholm has taken a libertarian approach on the issue of free will and determinism. Libertarians believe that humans have free will and make a distinction that free will and determinism are incompatible. Chisholm has the same opinion. On the problem of human freedom, Chisholm thinks that “Human beings are responsible agents; but this fact appears to conflict with a deterministic view of human action (the view that every event that is involved in an act is caused by some other event); and it also appears to conflict with an indeterministic view of human action (the view that the act, or some event that is essential to the act, is not caused at all).”(Page 3). He does not agree that determinism or indeterminism
The autonomy of will Kant had suggested a straight and demanding definition on what freedom is. Acting freely according our desire, our appetite is not freedom in a Kantian point of view. As mentioned above, Kant deny Bentham’s claim on pain and pleasure are our sovereign master since human had a rational capacity that distanced us and physical creatures that act merely according their appetites. This is what Kant called autonomy. Being autonomous, human are capable to act and choose freely according to the law we give ourselves.
Immanuel Kant formulated a supreme rational principle as an guideline on the morality of certain actions. The action is determined by the maxim, in other words, the reason for acting. You can only act if it could be a universal law and everyone can adopt that reason and act on it. If the universalized maxim could not be a universal law, then you should not perform the intended action. Whitey Basson created his wealth through hard work, clever strategies, opportunities and risks.
If I cannot relax and concentrate on what I am going to write, then I work myself into a confused panic that just wastes time. I have done many things to try to snap myself out of this mindset, and this semester I found the solution. Just staring a blank page makes me panic, but if I can get the first sentence out then unplugging the computer is the only way to get me to stop writing. I have learned that I overthink the topic, so just starting helps me calm down and frees my mind from this anxiety. Everything just starts flowing when I just start typing, not really focused on writing the paper.