46.8 million Americans were reported as uninsured in 2013, which equivocates to one sixth of the population. Those without insurance have revealed that they risk “more problems getting care, are diagnosed at later disease stages, and get less therapeutic care” (National Health Care Disparities Report) and those insured risk losing their insurance. Inadequately covered citizens are often working-class individuals who simply cannot receive insurance due to uncontrollable inconveniences and therefore jeopardize having medical coverage. In these instances, Americans have a chance of being diagnosed with diseases that they had no opportunity to prevent or could not diagnose them at an early stage of the illness. Patients have suffered unnecessarily due to lack of health care, and “18,000 Americans die every year because they don't have health insurance” (PNHP).
African Americans are also less likely to trust medical treatments. Furthermore, the individuals who cannot afford insurance are more valuable to illnesses, including sexual health issues. LGBTQ African Americans also experience mental health
Studies have also found that South Asians seem to not improve with treatment as much as other Asian groups (Ying and Hu, 1994). The reasons for this difference are many; it has been found that minorities in treatment may often not have access to mental health services, and/or they may receive a poorer quality of treatment. Minorities are also underrepresented in mental health research, which would lead to lack of knowledge of culture specific disorders, or culture specific symptoms of disorders, making it difficult to diagnose their disorders (U.S public health services, 2001). Cultural beliefs regarding how to deal with components of mental illness may be contrary to what professional helpers may require people to do. This may cause suspicion and confusion and may further dissuade people from seeking professional help, preferring to keep to their traditional practices.
Today, the amount of coverage and treatment that mentally ill individuals are provided with may depend on what type of insurance they have. However, as shown above, there is a variation in the amount of coverage for mental health services as opposed to physical health services (McLaughlin, 2004). There are many reasons why private and public health care programs have claimed for providing inadequate insurance coverage for mental versus physical health, including claiming that "… that mental health care is costlier and less efficacious than physical health care," (Tovino, 2012). This, however, completely ignores the differences between mental and physical health care and needs. Mental health care is certainly viewed in a more positive light today than in previous years, however, poor insurance coverages show that many do not take it as seriously as they must.
According to Henrietta, physicians at the Hopkins during the 1950s and early 1960s claimed to offer to treat African American patients but in contrary, they did so in a manner that showed segregation especially from the fellow white families. Another strategy to ensure that African Americans did not receive treatment in medical institutions is that there were education and language barrier. According to Skloot, these factors kept the backs away from these institutions unless they thought they had no choice, pg. 16.
Diabetes type 2 is a serious health problem that faces the African American community today (Carter, Barba, & Kautz, 2013). A decreased awareness of risk factors and knowledge deficit in a perceived threat and physical activity levels increases the likelihood of diabetes type 2 and its associated complications (Omolafe, Mouttapa, McMahan & Tanjasri, 2010). Furthermore, diabetes type 2 is 1.7 times higher in African Americans than non- Hispanic whites. Swift, Staiano, Johannsen, Lavie, Earnest, Katzmarzyk and Church (2013) states African-Americans have a greater risk of suffering from blindness, kidney disease, and amputations than the Caucasian race. Furthermore, statistics shows that African-American men and women have a 44.8 and 44.7%
Even though most of the people targeted were older or weak some could have been young and healthy too, but it would 've taken a little longer for them to die because of the disease. “Given that the mortality associated with the Black Death was extraordinarily high and selective, the medieval epidemic might have powerfully shaped patterns of health and demography in the surviving population, producing a post-Black Death population that differed in many
Individuals report high dissatisfaction when barriers to communication lead to misunderstanding and lack of adherence. Spanish-speaking ethnic minorities provide higher complaints with health care facilities and healthcare workers than English- speaking Caucasians. They also report lower satisfaction with the quality of care (Lor et al, 2015). Not all interpretation services produce the same level of satisfaction. Studies have shown that there is a higher level of patient satisfaction among individuals who receive a professional medical interpreter than a non-professional interpreter.
The first difference is the inequality in the quality of medical services that are offered. Such variations in services means that certain individuals can access better healthcare services whereas others have access to only low-quality services. An example is that minority groups are more likely to be diagnosed with late-stage cancers than whites. This is evidence that they are offered lower quality care.
Despite the progress in understanding the causes of mental illness and the tremendous advances in finding effective mental health treatments, far less is known about the mental health of minorities. Race, ethnicity, culture, language, geographic region, and other social factors affect the perception, availability, utilization, and, potentially, the outcomes of mental health services. Across racial and ethnic groups, a significant financial barrier also greatly affects mental health and the path to getting needed mental health care. Every society influences mental health treatment by how it organizes, delivers, and pays for mental health services. Therefore the provision of high quality, culturally and language appropriate mental health services, in locations accessible to racial and ethnic minorities, is essential to creating a more equitable
Mental Health Disparities Among Ethnic Minorities This paper addresses the mental health disparities among ethnic minorities and the advocacy for resolving these concerns. Access to mental health services refers to providers’ ability to give direct and timely services to consumers who request or need these services (La Roche & Turner, 2002). Mental health services have been significantly decreasing lately due to pressures to limit health care expenditures in general. The world has an ongoing growth of diversity.
Disparities are all around us and can account for inequality that is seen among different race, in education, business, politics and even healthcare. Inequality can affect all aspects of a person’s life. In the United States it is unfortunate that every citizen is not privy to the same quality of healthcare. This is one of the major challenges and growing issues for the United States healthcare system. The gap in care is derived from racial, ethnic, gender differences in populations.
The status/treatment of African Americans can be seen through the 1930’s in Jim Crow laws, the Great depression, and people. The Jim Crow laws create conflict between African Americans and white Americans. The Great Depression also made it worse for them because they lost many things and money. Finally certain people affected them in good and bad ways. African Americans were very segregated from everyone in the 1930s.
The Americans with Disability Act (ADA), was passed by Congress in 1990. Our country just recently celebrated the ADA’s 25th anniversary, commemorating the progression that our nation has made towards ensuring equality for those with disabilities. Though many strides have been taken, we still have quite a long way to go, namely in the aspects of transportation and employment. Over the last 25 years, our society progressed towards being more accessible towards all; ADA standards were implemented across the nation, however, there was resistance.
This webinar is a presentation on the race associated differences in health, how they come to be, and some flaws inherent in the available initiatives to address these issues. First to speak was Kumanyika (2015) who utilized health outcomes parameters such as excess deaths, Life Expectancy at birth, Low birth weight, Infant mortality and Years of potential life lost before 75years, in order to illustrate the overall improvement in the health outcomes of the general populace between 1985 till 20012. However quite glaring in these data is the persistent racial disparity in health existing with the minorities having health outcomes that are worse than the white population. Shamika attributed this trends to the inadequacy in the initiates that