Dyes Literature Review

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Wastewater from the textile industry can contain a variety of polluting substances including dyes. Increasing, environmental legislation is being imposed to control the release of dyes into the environment. Conventional waste water treatment are too expensive since they produce large amount of byproducts, muck production and disposal problem, so biological treatment is relatively in expensive way to remove dyes from the waste water. The successful removal of dyes from the effluent is depends on the microorganisms such as bacteria, algae, etc. , to convert the pollutants into non-toxic substances. In this review, we briefly discussed about the biosorption
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INTRODUCTION Biosorption is an innovative technology aimed at the removal of dyes from the textiles by using bacteria, algae,fungi and yeast. Dyes are water soluble. Important sources of the environmental pollution are textile dyeing industries. Dyes entrapment is due to Physico-Chemical interactions with active groups present on the cell wall: carboxylic, phosphate, sulfate, amino, amide and hydroxyl groups are the most commonly found, according to the biosorbent nature (Veglio and Beolchini 1997). These functional groups involved in dye binding. Bacteria, fungi,algae,yeast are mainly used microorganisms to bind a variety of dyes. They have low density, poor mechanical strength and little rigidity(Natarajan Saravanan et al., 2013). More than 10,000 different dyes with over 7x105 tons are…show more content…
Some were even capable of utilizing azo dyes as their sole carbon and nitrogen source[Jinqi,L., et al., 1992]. The biodegradation of azo dyes by the algae (chlorella pyrenoidosa C.vulgaris and oscillatoria tenuis) has also been assessed. According to the data, the azo reductase of the algae was responsible for [Liu,J.Q., et al., 1992]. In addition, the algae can play a direct role in degradation of azo dyes. Chlorella vulgaris have biosorption capacity for several reactive dyes were reported by [Aksu,Z., et al., 2005]. Dried spirogyra rhizopus have ability to decolorize acid red 274 dye by both biosorption and biocoagulation process and the removal amounts decreased while the removed concentration of AR 274 dye increased with increasing S.rhizopus concentration [Ozer,A., et al., 2006]. The potential of cosmarium sp.belonging to green algae was investigated as a viable biomaterial for biological treatment triphenylmethane dye and malachite green[Daneshvar,N., et al., 2007]. Immobilized thermophilic cyanobacterial strain phormidium sp. Has good decolorization activity under thermophilic condition[Sevgi Ertugrul et al., 2008]. Agitated batch sorption performed on algae Spirogyra 102 revealed the ability of test biosorbent to remove azo dye from the aqueous phase at

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