English Bodily Superiority as an Effect from Environment and Health Disease in colonial America reaffirmed the believed connection between the body and the environment and helped to shape a “racial definition of humanity in America.” The perceived links between environment and health explored in medical science in the early colonial period attributed to the development of the European settlers’ Anglo-American corporeal identity through the conceptualization of “seasoning” and its promotion of physical and divine superiority to that of the Native Americans. Early modern science during the colonial period depicted the idea of an individual’s health to be directly connected with their acclimation to the environment. Based on the Hippocratic theory of the four humors, medical science attributed the four elements of earth, air, fire, and water to be directly linked to the four bodily naturals of blood, …show more content…
The body was a portrayal of constitution and climate , the climate directly shaping what was known as the six non-naturals that controlled health: air, exercise and rest, sleeping and waking, food and drink, excretion of waste, and emotions. The process of acclimatization on the English body was believed to drastically alter the physiology and psychology of an individual due to the changing balance of the bodily humors. The English body’s adaptation to American air, sustenance, and diseases prompted the term “seasoning,” a testament to “settler bodies . . . like trees felled in the Old World, shipped like so much lumber to America, then dried, hardened, and proved durable in a new climate.” It was a necessity for the body to undergo proper seasoning, a process believed to last two years in the New World , or risk poor health and increased mortality . As European settlers witnessed the declining health of Native Americans to diseases believed to be endemic on American soil, colonists conceived that Native Americans’ mortality resulted from their bodily
In his book, Andres Resendez tries to unearth the harsh treatment of Native American Slavery. He argues that it is a big part neglected in our history, seeing as what you hear the majority of time is an in depth study of African American societies and just a quick gloss over Indian ones. In his book, Andres utilizes many excerpts and retells the TRUE story of Native American enslavement. One part of the book, goes on to explain how a Californian Captain managed to enslave hundreds of slaves and establish Indian Slave plantations and horrific conditions. “American schoolchildren are taught that smallpox was the epidemic that gutted Native American populations after exposure to Europeans; an illness to which they had no immunity ravaged
As economics begins to grow, indentured servitude began to take place and natives were sold to work for companies. One of the first few mistakes that the English did was build their fort on a swampy peninsula which was full of diseases. Another mistake they made was not educating themselves on growing crops which left them with no food. This led them to stealing food from the natives. While Davidson mentions the mass death of Europeans due to diseases and malnutrition, Axtell touches on how the Europeans spread diseases that the natives had never been introduced to, killing a lot of natives.
The Antebellum South had a seldom amount of doctors. Unfortunate for both slaves and their owners of this area, they lived in the marshland region, a place where mosquitoes carrying deadly diseases typically lived. Mosquitoes often spread these diseases, killing many slaves (Sullivan 1). The doctors had scarce knowledge about the deadly disease of the south and could do little to prevent the cause or spread of these illnesses. One of the suspected diseases or illnesses that the physicians claimed to harm the slaves was malnourishment.
Kelton uses these facts to show how the Cherokee did more than idly sit by and let smallpox take over, they took a stance by using their previous knowledge while also adding new aspects to customize their actions to the new and deadly disease. The author also does a splendid job in showing that the Cherokee were open to adopting new practices in within their already established practices if they proved to be beneficial to the health and well-being of the
With the Spaniards venturing to the Americas during their conquest, they unintentionally brought diseases along with them. While this could have been little to no issue, it turned into a massive killer for the natives due to them not having the tolerance against them like the Spaniards did. The “...epidemic of smallpox..” took cities by storm and caused deaths that could easily have been avoided (The Broken Spears, 92). This “... terrible plague that… spread throughout the city” weakened the natives to the point where “...no one could walk or move”, leaving them helpless and unable to take care of themselves (The Broken Spears, 91-93). This tragedy may not have been directly the fault of the Spaniards, considering spreading a disease was more than likely not their top priority, however, it is something that caused the natives great deals of pain and suffering over the course of the Spaniards’ conquest and demonstrated how little the Spaniards cared about the Native Americans and their
“1491” Questions 1. Two scholars, Erikson and William Balée believe that almost all aspects of Native American life have been perceived wrong. Although some refuse to believe this, it has been proven to be the truth. Throughout Charles C. Mann’s article from The Atlantic, “1491”, he discusses three main points: how many things that are viewed as facts about the natives are actually not true, the dispute between the high and low counters, and the importance of the role disease played in the history of the Americas. When the term “Native American” is heard, the average person tends to often relate that to a savage hunter who tries to minimize their impact on their surrounding environment.
Patients deserve to be treated with dignity and respect as they entrust medical providers to relief their pain and suffering. The legacy of medical care in Native American communities brings prejudices and personal biases. To explain, many Native Americans lack appropriate access to pain relief due to government
Robert W. Strayer explains in his book Ways of the World how disease devastated the native population. "When they came in contact with European or African diseases, Native American peoples died in appalling numbers, in many cases up to 90 percent of the population. The densely settled peoples of Caribbean islands virtually vanished within fifty years of Columbus 's arrival. "1 (ways of the world p 622-623) And because there were few natives, vast amounts of Europeans sailed
Since Native Americans have a high rate of poverty they suffer more when it comes to health problems. It was stated that if healthcare providers were to take the time to learn about Native American culture, while also spending time within their communities. Native Americans would be more open to letting healthcare providers help take care of them when it is needed. In the end it is up to the healthcare provided to gain their trust so that we would be able to help them
Historians differ on what they think about the net result of the European arrival in the New World. Considering that the Columbian Exchange, which refers to “exchange of plants, animals, people, disease, and culture between Afro-Eurasia and the Americas after Columbus sailed to the Americas in 1492,” led to possibly tens of millions of deaths on the side of the American Indians, but also enabled agricultural and technological trade (Henretta et al. 42), I cannot help but reflect on whether the effects should be addressed as a historical or a moral question. The impact that European contact had on the indigenous populations of North America should be understood as a moral question because first, treating it as a historical question is difficult due to lack of reliable historical evidence; second, the meaning of compelling historical claims is contestable as the academic historian perspective tends to view the American Indian oral history as invalid; and finally, what happened to the native Indians is morally repulsive and must be discussed as such. The consequences of European contact should be answered as a moral question because historically, it is hard to be historically objective in the absence of valid and dependable historical evidence.
Changes in the Land” is a book about the study’s done by William and the impacts on the environment and inhabitants of early New England done by the Europeans settling in. In his thesis Cronon claims, “the shift from Indian to European dominance in New England entailed important changes well known to historians in the ways these peoples organized their lives, but it also involved fundamental reorganizations less well known to historians in the region’s plant and animal communities” (Cronon 15). Cronon uses different evidence that he gathered up to display the conditions following the Europeans coming in contact with the new land.
Men and women nowadays are starting to lose self-confidence in themselves and their body shape, which is negatively impacting the definition of how beauty and body shape are portrayed. “...97% of all women who had participated in a recent poll by Glamour magazine were self-deprecating about their body image at least once during their lives”(Lin 102). Studies have shown that women who occupy most of their time worrying about body image tend to have an eating disorder and distress which impairs the quality of life. Body image issues have recently started to become a problem in today’s society because of social media, magazines, and television.
Superiority theory is the oldest theoretical approach to humor. The theories which view humor as an expression of aggression have been termed as the superiority theories. These theories are also known as disparagement or aggression theories. According to Plato, laughter originates in malice i.e. one enjoys to see the other person suffering or in adversity.