4. Moral Development theory of Lawrence Kohlberg Lawrence Kohlberg was a famous psychologist and developed an important theory of moral developments. In this theory, the child is responsive to cultural rules and labels of good and bad, right or wrong. By studying the answers from children of different ages Kohlberg hoped to discover the ways in which moral reasoning changed as people grew older. Kohlberg’s stages of moral development have three main levels and six stages.
To apply formative assessment effectively in the classroom, teachers have to know about formative assessment principles so that they can optimize the opportunities for gathering evidence. In so doing, it helps improve students’ learning process. Black and William (1998a) “set out four main headings for formative assessment practice: sharing learning goals, questioning, self/ peer assessment and feedback”. o Sharing learning goals: teachers give students an opportunity to get involved in what they are learning through discussing and deciding the criteria for success, which they can then use to recognize proof of improvement. Hence, information about learning objectives as well as success criteria needs to be presented in clear, explicit language which students can understand.
Both Piaget and Vygotsky provided highly influential theories which had impact on the way children are taught. However, as with every theory and study, there are pro’s and con’s to be highlighted. I will first evaluate Jean Piaget’s theory, followed by Lev Vygotsky. I will then compare and contrast the two with each other, showing the main similarities and differences between the two. Vygotsky's theory differs from that of Piaget in a number of important ways: 1: Vygotsky places more emphasis on culture affecting/shaping cognitive development - this contradicts Piaget's view of universal stages and content of development.
They should be actively involved in its implementation and its importance in lifelong learning. Generally, students judge their own work against a given criteria, provide information on how they can improve on that work in future and then grade their work. When the word “formative” is used in conjunction with assessment or evaluation, it connotes an improvement process while the word “summative” is used to describe a decision making process. 2.6 Distinctions between Self-assessment and Self-evaluation Assessment and Evaluation are necessary and complementary in education. Educators use assessment and evaluation to help their students build lifelong learning skills.
Also the similarities and differences between each theorist will be acknowledged in order to draw on the overall impact and relevance both theorists had in the field of developmental psychology. Jean Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory Cognitive development is a core principal of developmental psychology and in particular it is the work of Jean Piaget, who placed a significant emphasis on childhood development, which is ubiquitous in the field. (Sugarman, 2011) Piaget believed children develop schema, which represent the world. As children learn, they expand and modify their schema through assimilation; using a scheme to make sense of
Similarities and differences of both theories. Similarities Differences • Both Piaget and Kohlberg focus their theories on children • Both theories explain the development of young children • Similar to Piaget, early stages of moral reasoning are characterized by immediate and concrete rewards or punishments. • Kohlberg posited that moral reasoning develops as a function of cognitive growth and change as well as experiences and interactions with the environment, and in this way was similar to Piaget. • Both these psychologists are criticized for not really describing human development fully. • Kohlberg’s theory is really one of cognitive development as applied to moral understanding because he believed that children developed their moral principles primarily though thinking about them.
These theories provided inspiration and knowledge for future theorists’ like Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, who have become notable theorists in the area of cognitive development. Both of their theories have influenced educational pedagogy, and the fundamental premises of these theories can be observed in classrooms around the world. Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Piaget’s theory of cognitive development proposes stages of biological maturation as the basis for how children experience and interact with their environment and that children must progress through each stage before moving to the next. The stages in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development are the following: sensorimotor (0-2 years), pre-operational (2-7 years), concrete operational (7-11 years), and formal operational (11- adulthood). Within his theory, he uses the term “schemas” to describe the mental models for the different aspects of the
Piaget had a very simplistic theory on schema development, in my opinion, compared to Vygostsky. However, Piaget’s theory was used and agreed upon by many others. He theorized that, development predates learning. This means that he believe humans, especially newborns and infants, portray their surrounding world through mental schema and this is what enables us to interpret and understand our environment. Piaget refers to schemas as a way for individuals to organize their knowledge.
Furthermore, make sure that students ' self-belief is enhanced and they must believe that they are able to learn and deal with failures in order to develop their confidence towards learning. Allowing students to enjoy learning by working with others will enhance their sense of competence because cooperation between the students among themselves is a basic aspect of the Reconstructivism philosophy. The most important thing that I must pay attention to is my relationship with the students because when students feel comfortable toward the teacher, they can be engaged easily in the
In addition, the role of a teacher is to reach the heart and mind of the children, expand their intellect and knowledge. Build a holistic individual who can face the unknown future ahead of them. Assessment is something we can't ignore. As mentioned above using effective teaching method we can assess students. In other words, formative assessment is used to assess students learning.