‘Constructivist’ theory of learning is considered to be the main developmental theories of learning currently working in the area of special educational needs. Constructivism is ‘child-centred development’. It is an active and building process, where learners use what they already know to learn new things, and infer new knowledge based on their interaction with new experiences outside themselves, using information and ideas from within themselves, or already obtained. In other words, knowledge is considered to be socially constructed because it is obtained in partnership between new experiences and knowledge already acquired. Constructivism is useful for understanding the way in which a child may progress educationally, which is important
Piaget and Maslow: Teaching the whole child Exceptional educators keep their fingers on the pulse of what their students need, in order to teach them effectively. Examining Piaget and Maslow’s theories, and applying them to the classroom will facilitate achieving this goal. Considering Piaget’s focus on development, and Maslow’s prioritization of human needs, one can integrate these ideas into classrooms and lesson plans that are optimized for student success. Piaget’s theory of cognitive development Piaget asserts, children are born with inherited scripts, called schema, these schema are building blocks for cognitive development. As a child grows, he acquires more of these building blocks; moreover, these building blocks become more complex as the child progresses through different stages in development (Huitt, Hummel 2003).
.He believed that for learning to take place a child has to adapt to his environment and knowledge is constructed and manipulated within a child. He also believed that peer interactions with children of similar intellectual level was of great importance because it opens the child to alternative perspectives and gives them the opportunity to discuss new ideas, information and knowledge. Piaget also believed that when children learn new things it is compared to something they already know and grouped in a mental shelve with other similar things (schema). Assimilation and
Piaget’s theory is based on assisting others until they can help themselves. Piaget goal is to help children learn so that they can become successful as they reach adulthood. Children learn as they experience different things in their environment. This includes playing with toys and using objects that helps them physically. For example, a child who enjoys drawing could
Child development is an area of significant interest to professionals who deal with children on a daily basis. It is through child development theorists and their theories that we begin to form an understanding of how children develop emotionally and socially to become fully grown adults in society with a moral and emotional compass/. Teachers need to study child development in order to provide developmentally appropriate educational experiences for children. Health professionals also need to understand this area to support children in their physical, social, emotional and cognitive journey to becoming functioning adults in society. Childhood is a concept that is affected by social context and also by history.
Understanding the rationales of cognitive perspective helps an individual to interact with children in a better way. It is very important for a child to develop a proper cognitive ability from a young age. By understanding the rationales of cognitive development, one is able to know what to expose the children to as they develop. Also, one knows how to advise the parents of the children on the various methods of handling their children. Once one acquires this skills they are able to distinguish the different types of children and know exactly how to handle each of them.
It is vital to monitor a childâ€TMs sequence and rate of the developments in order to determine what type help they may or may not need in future. Each child in care could be recorded all areas of developments. Through the reference of the sequences, monitor what children can or cannot do at a specific stages in their lives. As said, while most children follow the same common pattern of development, they may reach the milestones at different ages, depending on each of the individual childâ€TMs ability and a range of personal and external factors that may affect them. The order in which the development of children would happen and the speed in which it would happen are
The systematic study of cognitive development was first made by Piaget. Piaget’s theory observes and describes children at different ages. His theory is very extensive, which starts from birth through adolescence, and includes concepts of language, scientific reasoning, moral development, and memory. Piaget’s assume that children construct their own knowledge in response to their experiences. Hence children
Even if language focuses on a child’s ability be able to understand and speak a language, it is better if the child knows how to think, learn, and solve problems as they grow in order for them to figure out how things work in their surrounding and how they will be able to stand on their own once they encounter a problem. Even at their young age, a child does experience minor problems such as how to get up after they fall from standing, walking, talking, etc. As I have said earlier, cognitive development correlates with language development. Through the process of learning how to talk, at the same time, the child starts think, learn, understand, and solve his or her problem. It may be as simple as trying to talk clearly by mimicking.
Sociocultural theory argues that learning is a social process and the beginning of human intelligence in society and culture. The theme of the theory is that social interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition. Vygotsky believed everything is learned on two levels, first on a social level and later the child (Vygotsky 1978) .Social interaction plays a big role in the development of a child’s cognition functions and the key to understanding it is the “ZPD” zone of proximal development. The ZPD includes all the knowledge and skills that a child cannot yet understand or perform on their own but is capable of learning with help and guidance from an adult. As children grow their skills their knowledge grows by observing someone