Some research also claims that reference also provides unfairness to an individual that how he/she views the social environment. The most important role of reference group is the major and primary threat for individuals. Minority individuals in fear because of reference provided group, these groups can be more important than the society climate opinion. The theory about reference group was tested and got successful results; these tests take the topic affirmative action. Scheufele writes that in theory “Spiral of Silence” focus is ever centered on to the element factor that individual is self-censor or not self-censor.
Stereotyping people is an act humans do almost everyday unintentionally. When an individual encounters another, the initial response is automatically judging them based on their race, appearance, ethnicity, etc. One tends to make assumptions about the lifestyle of others and create false misconceptions without giving it a second thought even if it’s not accurate. By creating incorrect information without having complete knowledge people tend to misuse the misconceptions and start calling it the truth. Although the stereotypes may be truthful to some extent it doesn’t apply to everyone.
Consequently, Hofstede's model may be adequate for measuring societal culture where the focus is on those cultural values. However, it might be problematic to study organisational culture that resides more in practices. In this study, the focus is on organisational values and beliefs held by employees of Sri Lankan IT Sector. Thus, it is suggested that Hofstede’s model of organisational culture may not be suitable for measuring organisational culture. From the previous discussion of measuring organisational culture, it is obvious that there are many approaches to the study and measurement of organisational culture.
In conventional network analysis, the structure of linkage and transaction take place within the links are the primary research subject. Thus, each nodes’ individual backgrounds tend to be out of its scope. But the cultural and qualitative approach in relational sociology can contribute toward the understanding of the bridging and creating of holes within the network from deeper analysis on the characteristics of individual actors. Exploring the cultural aspect of the nodes is certainly a crucial direction. But it is also important to explore the biographical background and memory for creating certain cultural taste, identities and practices that has affinity with actors in distance without pre-existing ties.
Bias is preference or prejudice in favor of or against a view, a thing, a person, or group compared with another. Biases can be learned implicitly within cultural contexts. Cultural bias can make you view others in a negative way because you have certain opinions on how they act or what they do. They can also make you view certain parts of the world in a negative way because of how they live and what they eat in their countries. As I previously mentioned about one
Ethnocentrism and cultural relativism are opposite viewpoints of one subject, culture. When a culture tries to evaluate another culture based on a singular viewpoint it is known as ethnocentrism. But cultures can be evaluated using individual standards since there is not one set of standards that culture fits into. I realize that most people agree with the concept of cultural relativism but there are some problems. According to an article by Henry H. Bagish entitled Confessions of a Former Cultural Relativist, states that cultural relativism can cause people to justify immoral and unjustifiable actions.
Stereotypes categorize people based on a truth about themselves but most of the time are exaggerated. When stereotyping a person people assume that they are a certain way based on what group they are categorized in. Unlike stereotypes, misconceptions are based on an opinion; what someone thinks about a certain
Previous studies have shown its implication to the phenomenon of self-serving bias. Showing that cultural differences, degree of relationship, protection of individual’s self-esteem, role of individual, academic achievement, and expectancy are factors that is affected and can affect an individual’s behavior. However, in addressing the question on the explanations of why people display self-serving bias. Some researchers suggest that self-serving bias is driven by their motivation process or they are driven by the manner on how they make judgments (Anderson & Slusher, 1986; Tetlock & Levy, 1982). In motivation-driven explanations of self-serving bias, two factors can be seen as distinct motives: self-enhancement (self-worth) and self-presentation.
Ideology may surface as the ‘engine of social action’ and cultural portrayals are in turn confronting the effects of actions which are stirred by ideologies. In order for one to truly comprehend the link between culture and ideology, one can acknowledge the personal affiliations and attitudes that might be cast into the public, hence making use of the mass media. The connection between ideology and culture is quite complex, however it can be regarded in three manners: i) the ideological input and output, which are ways through which the ideological beliefs are transmitted or communicated. ii) cultural criticism, which refers to the popular message, and finally, iii) ideological hegemony that shows a certain status quo via culture to reinforce
al (2011) Qualitative research is an approach that allows you to examine peoples’ assumptions and paradigms. The importance of reflexivity and how to practise it is described using field examples. Qualitative research can be used for a wide range of applications. Qualitative methods are typically used for providing an in-depth understanding of research issues that embraces the perspectives of the study population and the context in which they live. Qualitative research is useful for exploring new topics or understanding complex issues; for explaining people’s beliefs and behaviour and for identifying the social or cultural norms of a culture or society.