Essay On Marine Aquaculture

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Marine aquaculture in Indonesia is mainly divided into four common farmed species namely crustacean, finfish, sea cucumber, mollucs and seaweed (Table 1). Crustacean aquaculture sites could be found in most of Indonesia islands but are clustered in Jawa and Sulawesi. Almost half of Indonesia total marine aquaculture produced in Sulawesi, followed by Bali & Nusa Tenggara with 25.7 percent; Jawa with 21.2 percent. Sumatra, Kalimantan, Papua and Maluku share the remaining 10 percent fairly evenly. In the term of cultivated species, seaweeds accounts for 89.6 percent followed by finfish for 5.29 percent; crustacean 5.24 percent; mollucs and sea cucumber for less than 1 percent. Dominant species cultivated vary at regional scale. In Sulawesi, seaweed account for 42.96 percent of the total production with an annual economic value of US$ 60.4 million. In addition to…show more content…
Higher temperature above normal due to strong El Niño effects caused toxic algae explosion. Seaweed aquaculture suffers from changing sea condition due to the outbreak of Ice-ice disease. Ice-ice disease in seaweed is caused by changes in salinity, ocean temperature and light intensity. This disease cause stress of seaweed, making them produce a "moist organic substance" that attracts bacteria in water and induces the characteristic "whitening" and hardening of the seaweed's tissues (Fukami et al, 1995). In 2009, seaweed farming in Bali experienced the outbreak of ice-ice disease every single planting cycle. Due to the outbreak of ice-ice, seaweed production decreased from 500 tons in 2008 to 200 tons in 2009. More recently, the effect of sea surface temperature rise and el Niño in Indonesia continue, with outbreak of ice-ice disease spreading to many seaweed farming in Maluku, Nusa Tenggara and Sulawesi. This has prompted conclusions that rising sea surface temperatures result in toxic algae and at same time trigger ice-ice

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