Marine Aquaculture In Indonesia

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Marine aquaculture in Indonesia is mainly divided into four common farmed species namely crustacean, finfish, sea cucumber, mollucs and seaweed (Table 1). Crustacean aquaculture sites could be found in most of Indonesia islands but are clustered in Jawa and Sulawesi. Almost half of Indonesia total marine aquaculture produced in Sulawesi, followed by Bali & Nusa Tenggara with 25.7 percent; Jawa with 21.2 percent. Sumatra, Kalimantan, Papua and Maluku share the remaining 10 percent fairly evenly. In the term of cultivated species, seaweeds accounts for 89.6 percent followed by finfish for 5.29 percent; crustacean 5.24 percent; mollucs and sea cucumber for less than 1 percent.
Dominant species cultivated vary at regional scale. In Sulawesi, seaweed
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There are current evidences that relative sea level rise globally increased in the last several decades. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2013) has projected that the global annual sea-level rise about 2mm (1-3 mm/year in coastal areas of Asia) and projected to accelerate to a rate of about 5 mm per year over the next century. The rise of sea-level in Indonesia coastal areas have increased by 1-8mm per year (Asia Development Bank, 2009c). The effect of sea level rise on habitats suitable for aquaculture will be spatially variable over the next decade. The rates of sea-level rises are likely to accelerate. Under very conservative scenario, sea level rise in Indonesia coastal areas, excluding land movements, is 40cm by 2010 (Cruz et al., 2007). This suggests a 4-fold increase in current rates of sea-level rise toward the century. The 1cm sea-level rise will easily outstrip rates of isostatic uplift throughout Indonesia islands. Increase in sea-level will result in the loss of intertidal habitants if floods defenses are maintenance (Crooks, 2004). Habitants loss in intertidal areas is likely to exert impact on shellfish cultivations, while finfish aquaculture may be less affected (Callaway et al, 2012). The rise of sea-level is expected to destroy areas where sand belts are important to protect the lagoons…show more content…
Aquaculture operators may be in conflict with wild harvest fishermen over access to broodstock, for example, or with tourist and residential groups over access to sites. The development of aquaculture industry in Indonesia relies on access to suitable sites. The key criteria for site suitability include access to water and good local infrastructure. However, the site factors sought by aquaculture operators are also sought by other users, and thereby competition for access to sites is frequently intense. The prospect of expanses of water in easy-to-reach locations make many potential aquaculture sites highly desirable for environmental and tourist purposes. The result will cause aquaculture development may constrained by the loss of sites to these

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