Many a time the management is faced with a dilemma when making decisions. In principle, decisions must be ethical to prevent negative setbacks to organizations and managers. Markkula Center for Applied Ethics at Santa Clara University through Velasquez et al (2009), highlights the process of ethical decision-making; i) Recognition of ethical issues during choice making between alternatives. ii) Getting the facts about the case iii) Evaluation of alternative actions so that the choice will produce the best benefits and least harm, the choice will respect the rights of stakeholders and the option must treat the involved parties proportionately or equally. This is a utilitarian-rights-justice approach.
It speaks of a system of behaviour in regards to standards of right or wrong behaviour. The word carries the concepts of moral standards, with regard to behaviour; moral responsibility, referring to our conscience; and a moral identity, or one who is capable of right or wrong action. Common synonyms include ethics, principles, virtue, and goodness. Morality has become a complicated issue in the multi-cultural world we live in today. In my opinion, morality is an integral part of law or of legal development, which morality is secreted in the interstices of the legal system, and to that extent is
Moral mishaps will happen throughout our daily routine, in the office, community, and in our society. For the individual, the ethic is a challenge which they must navigate. The codes of conduct throughout the organization will shape the ethical norm and culture of the business. These will involve areas of our interpersonal values, duty, and obligations. Ethical issues find its way in whatever one study, in our intimate life and professional life and one must make a rational decision to balance both worlds.
But what is deemed right is not defined in business. Often, the leaders are struggling to strike a balance between profitability and business ethics. Whenever decisions involve moral issues, an ethical dilemma occurs because of the following reasons (Robinson, 2003): • Taking decision between two correct rules: It is the toughest decision and is solely dependent on self-reflective paradigms (Kidder, 1995). • Taking decision in absence of any rules or guidelines: Shapiro and Stefkovich (2011) suggest that every leader should maintain their own ethical codes that will assist them in taking the right decisions. • Taking a decision that morally requires two or more courses of action that are practically incompatible with each other.
Publics are still in question whether our public servants are ethical enough. There are many reasons or motives why people tend to commit unethical things but this study will focus on the factors that may strengthen integrity. Instead of looking at the
There is an insufficient literature highlighting this aspect and concern related to the moral courage. However, many studies have reflected that immigration to new country have different challenges, which include adjustment to various customs. These challenges can be difficult for the healthcare practitioners struggling to be accepted within the new society while implementing moral courage within an inexperienced environment. Different scholars of moral courage have highlighted this concern in terms of the existence of common moral framework across cultures. It is evident that values and principles can differ across the globe but there are certain shared ethical values across cultures and they include honesty, fairness, respect, empathy, courage, and
There are two ways to approach towards resolving the conflicting issues. They are consequences-based where the priority is given to the choices that lead to good outcome and the other is rule-based ethics where the priority is given to following the rules without undue regard to the outcome. However the ethical issues have long been causing trouble. No people thank the same way. Each person has their own way of thinking and perspective.
Meta-ethics overlooks moral judgments, associating itself with origins and meaning of ethical principles. Normative ethics looks to simplify decision making by providing a criteria to differ between right and wrong. Lastly, applied ethics directly involves itself with controversial topics such as animal rights, capital punishments and war. Most people tend to forget that it would be next to impossible to know whether an answer provided only on the basis of ethics may be right as the understanding of ethical implications differs from person to person, but what it can do is provide us with a lot of answers. Ethics is as vast as a topic that one may look towards in matters of depth but our goal is to understand the effects that it may have in the professional field.
1. Ethics – A Contemporary PR Issue Public relations (PR) practitioners are facing several ethical challenges in their work, which mostly arise from PR-practicing (non-profit) organisations trying to take influence on public opinion and attitudes of competition-relevant parties. In return, these groups distinguish themselves by consciously or unconsciously influencing these organisations. This way they can either be potential beneficiaries or risk carriers for them (Post et al., 2002). For PR practitioners, this has several consequences at various stages in the network of relationships.
The definitions of ethics usually include the same ideas of having a variation of systematic analysis, determining right from wrong, and figuring out what should be valued. Public relations ethics involves specific values including honesty, openness, loyalty, fair-mindedness, respect, integrity, and communication. Many journalists tend to believe that public relations ethics is not possible because the profession itself involves manipulation. An example of a popular headline created in the early 1990’s was “Citizens for a Free” Kuwait.” It was created by a public relations firm which was hired by the Kuwaiti government. It has been said that this was successful because the public relations firm lack of ethics which later called into question