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In this essay, I am going to describe and explain the basic principles in string theory. String theory is a theoretical framework in which particles are replaced by strings. The strings are like ordinary particles with mass, charge but other properties are determined by the vibrational state of the string and they are only in one dimension. String theory originated from the Kaluza-Klein theory in 1921. In 1970 the official string theory is formulated. In 1971 supersymmetry is invented in two contexts: 1. particle field theory 2. Because of introducing fermions into string theory. In 1974 gravitons were theorised. This was when string theory was proposed as a unified theory for the four fundamental forces of nature. In 1976 supersymmetry*…show more content…*

If one string vibrates in one manner, it could exhibit characteristics of a “strange” quark and if another string had a different vibration it could be an “up” quark. In string theory quarks contain fragments of energy that exist in a 1D plane, length. If an object has only length and no depth it must be infinitely thin, and it must therefore be thought of as a line segment. The strings are flexible and can be contorted in almost infinite ways producing a nearly infinite spectrum of “tones”. Every mode is identified with a fundamental particle. As strings vibrate more and more vigorously, their modes give rise to an infinite number of particles. Using Einstein’s equation E=mc2 physicists theorised that there is a relationship between the energy and mass of the string. The more energetic the string, the heavier the particle is. The strings should have a huge amount of energy but physicists worked out that vacuum energy could cancel with vibrational energy, lowering the string’s overall energy and mass. This allows vibrating strings to appear as massless or nearly massless particles. Using string theory, it can theorise the massless particle with all the properties of the graviton. This is important because not many theories can support the idea of the

If one string vibrates in one manner, it could exhibit characteristics of a “strange” quark and if another string had a different vibration it could be an “up” quark. In string theory quarks contain fragments of energy that exist in a 1D plane, length. If an object has only length and no depth it must be infinitely thin, and it must therefore be thought of as a line segment. The strings are flexible and can be contorted in almost infinite ways producing a nearly infinite spectrum of “tones”. Every mode is identified with a fundamental particle. As strings vibrate more and more vigorously, their modes give rise to an infinite number of particles. Using Einstein’s equation E=mc2 physicists theorised that there is a relationship between the energy and mass of the string. The more energetic the string, the heavier the particle is. The strings should have a huge amount of energy but physicists worked out that vacuum energy could cancel with vibrational energy, lowering the string’s overall energy and mass. This allows vibrating strings to appear as massless or nearly massless particles. Using string theory, it can theorise the massless particle with all the properties of the graviton. This is important because not many theories can support the idea of the

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