Crystal violet was then added for 60 seconds before being washed off with water. The mordant, Gram’s Iodine, was added for another 60 seconds before getting washed off with water. The heat fixed smear was then washed with 95% alcohol until the wash ran clear, leading to the final step of adding Safranin for 45 seconds before being rinsed with water. The slide was finally blot dyed with bibulous paper before it was placed under a microscope to observe the color and shape of the bacterium. 2.2 Litmus Milk Reaction A milk-based, litmus broth tube is incubated and observed after 48 hours.
Those that make use of steam, microwaves and cold water. H chilled water sterilization apparatus, it takes about twenty minutes, while the other two required approximately 10 minutes until the process is complete. The main sterilization rules (the first
Fertilization is carried out by adding one ml of sperm solution with approx. 100x106 sperms to the mentioned ovules (1 million) which means a ratio of 100 sperms to each ovule. The sperm solution has 1 ml of concentrate of sperms obtained directly from the gonad of the sea urchins and diluted in a volume of 200 ml. The success of fertilization as well as embryonic development is determined through microscopic examination. After 30 minutes the fertilization, fertilized eggs (embryos) are poured out whereas one-half of the water is changed with fresh, 0.5 um-filtered and UV irradiated seawater at 17-18
The media used in this experiment was Trypticase nitrate broth. The reagents used (A and B) were sulfanilic acid and alpha-naphthylamine (respectively). Using aseptic technique, the bacterium (16A and 16B) were inoculated into labeled broth test tubes. The tubes were incubated for 48 hours at 37 degrees Celsius. When the incubation was complete 5 drops of reagent A and 5 drops of reagent B were added to each of the broths.
However, after passing the emulsion through the ultrasonication for three times, ensuing passes had no further impact on the molecule size. Besides, and in progressive homogenization cycles, no further change on the size distribution was observed.15 The aggregate sonication time was 60 min with 3 homogenization cycle of 20 minutes on three successive days. The pulse duration was changed in accordance with 9 sec on 3 sec off each cycle of 12 sec. Energy control can be acquired through pulse mode operation. Ultrasonic probe system, the instrument regularly permits ultrasonic illumination to be applied in various pulse modes which empowers the sound waves to be conveyed irregularly, considering periods of cooling.
In heat sterilization, time and temperature relate to the killing rate with thermal death point being the temperature that kills all the bacteria in a 24-hour broth culture at neutral pH in 10 minutes. The higher the temperature the lesser the time it takes to kill the bacteria. The autoclave
The analyses were done at the DEpartment of Pharmacology, Sri Ramachandra University,Porur,Chennai. PREPERATION OF NEEM EXTRACT: One kg of crisp, shade dried leaves of A. Indica were ground in 4 liters of refined water and permitted to soak overnight. The suspension was centrifuged at 5000 rpm for 20 min and separated through a Whatman No.1 channel paper. The supernatant liquid was permitted to dissipate in glass petri dishes under tube light to give heat and to anticipate clamminess so that no organism growth occurs. At the point when totally dry, the powder was gathered by scratching and was put away.
The wonder tree, Ricinus communis (L.), is a shrub of the family of Euphorbiacea, with green to red leaves.  It is native in South Africa, but is widely naturalized and cultivated as crop-and decorative plant in many countries, spanning climates from tropical to mediate temperatures, for example India, South America and China. [2,3] The seeds of Ricinus communis (L.), also known as Castor Beans, are stored in the green, spikey fruits of the plant and are of brown colour, with greyish-white patterns, which often leads to a comparison of the seeds with ticks. [1,2] The castor beans contain one of the most potent and toxic natural poisons available, namely the glycoprotein ricin [1,4,5]. Despite this toxicity, the oil of the castor bean is widely
MICROPROPAGATION IN FICUS ELASTICA SHOOTING AND ROOTING General Information about the plant Ficus (Moreaceae) is a genus that includes plants like rubber Tree, Indian Fig, banyan , peepal etc . The plant is a native species of India , Mayyanmar, Bhutan , Nepal etc. They may grow very large sometimes . Mechanically the plant can be removed only when they are small. The plant grows upto a height of 30 to 45 feet , the plant’s spread is around25 to 30 feet leaf growth rate is fast the plant’s texture is coarse, they are arranged in an alternate manner , leaf type is simple , leaf’s margin is entire, leaf venation is pinnate, brachidodrometype .