This is because of the earlier premise that it is inherent of humans to be born with selfish desires, thus education is necessary, rather than simply being important, which is Mencius’ views. In other words, as Xunzi believes that humans will perform bad deeds in an neutral environment where no education is present due to the bad human nature, he holds that education and rituals are necessary if a person were to perform good deeds/attain sagehood. However, as Mencius believes that humans will perform good deeds in an neutral environment due to the good human nature, he simply believes that education and rituals are important, not to the extent of
From articles, people can infer that as an instinctive response, dealing with a situation in a quick manner, that goes without thinking leads to an altruistic result. From philosophical theories, people can understand that altruism is ultimately what the majority of people want in their society, for everyone to treat one another happily and rationally. If one were lead to believe that everyone was controlled by the appetitive part of their soul, or they just naturally thought everyone was selfish, would disregard that that person may have had time to think further about those their egoistic decisions. Those who are egoistic in behavior do not take self-centered actions because they instinctively felt it was best to deceive others; instead, they are presented with situations that they thought long about. Even if egoistic people did intuitively believe their appetites in life, then this must come from their past experiences where they wished to gain everything for oneself, without a care for others.
Society and respect are hooked together. A society cannot function without respect because of the following reasons. Respect is an offspring of altruism, a biological layer on the basis of society. Secondly, because it is the moral foundation of a human society. Above all, without respect, progress in a society is bound to hinder.
Paper #1 Assignment While empathy has a major subconscious impact on the effect of social interactions, the acting upon of such impulses can be perceived as emotional self gratification. The drive to understand and emulate emotions of those less fortunate, although being an impressive product of social evolution, highlights an innate desire to seek pleasure in performing acts of charity and can therefore be likened to a hedonistic pursuit. As Jeremy Rifkin states in The Empathic Civilisation, “The first drive is the drive to actually belong, it’s an empathic drive.” As a species, humankind has gone beyond the act of day-to-day survival, and that is owed to the sense of collective many feel living in a society. Empathizing creates a sense of
However, the good will may depend on outside factors to bring about good in a person. Thus, I argue if Kant’s theory were true, it would be very difficult to be a good person as utilitarianism do not allow for acts that go beyond duty. Kant’s argument suggests that good will is the only thing good without qualification. First, Kant begins to distinguish between things that are good without qualification and things that are good only under certain qualified conditions. For example, gifts of nature such as understanding, wit, and judgement, or gifts of fortune such as power, riches,
The first is that “without freedom there can be no morality.“this is also used as justification for his view that only action can have a moral judgement associated with it. The second is that morality is an innate function of humans “we have it within ourselves”. Jung also heavily implies that the collective unconciuos is a force of good and that styling our actions in accordance with its “wishes” we can find the “right” path. This is not the same as trying to be “normal” which Jung calls “a hell of sterility and hopelessness” but rather the act of conforming to the moral ideal of society. The third is that the“shadow“is necessary for moral behaviour which coincides with his belief that for good to exist there must be evil.
Utilitarianism is a relativistic ethic because each time the outcomes of each ethical questions will be different. Utilitarianism considers the consequences of the action as an assessment of whether an action is morally right or wrong. The beginnings of utilitarianism are often accredited to Jeremy Bentham. Bentham adopted the view of Hedonism which states that the only thing intrinsically good, or right, is pleasure (Nathanson, n.d.). Bentham stated that “nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure.
The actions that have the best consequences and thus permissible can sometimes be unjust. Conscience is the decisive sanction for the principle of utility. Mill suggested that every human possesses a natural sentiment of concerning others’ welfare. When such natural sentiment is encouraged, other people’s pleasure would become our standard of moral judgment. 8 By considering the maximum happiness for maximum number of people, we are indeed attempt to place the morality assessment squarely under public observation, instead of being a matter of personal intuitions.
The voice of conscience acts as a moral sensor, which is triggered whenever we face an ethical behaviour and fires the alarm once the morality is breached. Utterly, It is up to our will whether to listen irresistibly to the voice that is what Kant calls it “moral predisposition” or mute it which consequently leading to immoral behaviour. The previous argument explains the moral law imposed by Kant. Furthermore, he emphasised that people are rational beings act according to their morals, he considers people as a moral agent and ought to act morally and willingly motivated by the
He analyzes the moral obligations that exist and states that if someone performs a moral duty but also acts on one of the four natural inclinations then the meaning behind their actions are weaker and therefore less important. An action performed for moral duty without any tendency towards natural inclination hold the truest form of moral duty that we should all strive to perform for others in order to become a better society that is more understanding and respectful of the people around us. With Immanuel Kant’s ideas on moral duty and inclination we can continue to further analyze our actions and the actions of others that we see to gain the best perspective possible. Teaching moral duties without reason may be simple but I believe it to be detrimental in the long run as these types of actions are the glue that holds us all together with our social interactions, pursuit of knowledge and desire to
In society, people should be ethically responsible with helping people. People act ethically responsible when one is in need of assistance because they let their sympathetic feelings of compassion take over their intentions. Ethical responsibility is a duty or obligation to ensure the individual’s well-being through specific commitments; such as saving someone from a certain tragedy. One piece of evidence from the text that demonstrates the sudden acts of ethical responsibility is “Can the Law Make Us Be Decent” by Jay Sterling Silver. Though many may argue that Silver’s argument is invalid, most will agree that his argument is in fact agreeable.
The theory of right and wrong characteristics or good and bad behaviors is concerned with morality; its role can shape an individual’s personality which can affect his or her call of action. It is only natural that we should have some kind of sense of duty and physical forces from our experiences that make us have moral laws. It’s an aspect of humanity which helps them make rational decisions and it also serves as guidance for mere goodness. Our existence defines who we are as an individual because of our values that help us see past our wrongdoing and helps improve our future. This can be seen in Sophocles’ story of “Antigone,” Antigone’s character portrays a strong individual who is loyal and values her family more than the society.
Philosophy 100 Steven Phan Kant, Immanuel: Grounding of Metaphysics of Moral 10-19-15 The first of Kant’s essay about metaphysics on morality, he revealed to us that it is one’s sense of duty, which makes it a moral action. He also explained what logic is as it pertains understanding the most reasonable course to take, and as well as how it can only be a pure concept as it does not derive from experiences. Taking all of this into account, in the second part of Kant’s essay, he start with the idea that there is now way to give an example of a moral action outside of it being of duty. See that humans are able to make choices, their actions can fall into two categories of why they do them, according to Kant. The first category is called the hypothetical imperative, and it’s when the rational reasoning behind the course of action is clear and for one’s own goal.
Sometimes a friend has views that either do not agree with our own, or appear to not even be consistent with each other. In the case of Sarah and Jamie, utilitarian ethical standpoints are brought into question. Utilitarianism is “the doctrine that the rightness of actions is to be judged by their consequences” (Shafer-Landau 78, 2015). It is a form of consequentialism that examines the consequences of actions, and if those actions produce happiness and pleasure (overall, not just for one person) and minimizes the amount of suffering, then that action is correct and morally right. Typically to determine this, one would perform the Happiness Calculus for actions A and B, and whichever one produced the greatest amount of pleasure is the action
In both modern society and the world set forth in the beginning Ayn Rand 's The Fountainhead, altruism and selflessness are praised as accepted ideals while independence and selfishness are abhorred. This twisted idea of morality is challenged by the protagonist of The Fountainhead, Howard Roark. Though selfishness can be broadly defined and can be harmful at times, Howard Roark exhibits a specific type of selfishness that does not seek to harm others, but to simply preserve the person 's ego and personal pursuit of success. The best way to define the nature and effectiveness of Howard Roark 's selfishness is through examining his interactions with other major characters and comparing their egos, integrity, and approaches to achievement. Peter Keating is an interesting character in that he tries to be selfish, but he has no actual sense of self.