Deontological Ethical Theories Essay

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Deontological Ethical Theories or Duty Theories:
According to White (2014), Powers (2005), Schwickert (2005), Gaus (2001b) and Kuniyop (2008), deontological theories are duty-based theories or non-consequentialist theories, which define morality as the fulfilment of moral duties based on obeying moral rules, principles and maxims, regardless of the consequences. Thus, for deontologists the Right has priority over the Good, which means that even if an act will produce the Good, it may not be undertaken, if it is not in agreement with the Right. There are a variety of deontological approaches to morality, but only a few will be discussed: agent-centred theory, patient-centred theory, contractarian theory, Kantian theory, divine command theory and Rossian deontology.

Agent-centred Theory:
As explained by Alexander and Moore (2012), “according to agent-centred …show more content…

All virtue-based theories emphasise the importance of community over the individual. But the secular tradition identifies communities with political regimes, whereas the non-secular tradition identifies with religious communities. Both traditions believe that the virtue of something refers to its excellence. Both traditions focus on what it means to achieve the Good life over a long period of time and both, differentiate between virtues and vices. The non-secular approach, looks to religious authorities, like the Bible to express the virtues needed, of which faith, hope and charity have been identified. Aristotle (see Appendix A) proposed that a moral virtue, which is a habitual character trait that has been cultivated through socialization, lays midway (in the mean) between the two extreme vices of excess and deficiency. The goal is to encourage virtuous behaviour, which can be achieved by starting moral education at a young age by allowing children to observe virtuous adults and to practise behaving

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