First, the greed of the epics’ heroic characters alters the journey and fates of the mortal characters. For example, in the beginning of The Iliad, Achilles is dishonored when his war prize, Briseis, is stolen by King Agamemnon. In turn, Achilles goes to his mother, Thetis, to utilize her immortal influence to help the Trojans defeat the Achaeans; “Let [Zeus] give help now to the Trojans. Let them drive the Greeks in among their very ships on the sand, killing them there” (Homer 43). In doing so, Achilles intends the Greeks will realize how important he is, and regret taking away Briseis.
The beginning of Book II depicts the Trojan Horse being taken into Troy after much persuasion from Sinon, who appeals to the Trojan’s emotions to assist him in this task. Throughout much of this section, Sinon frequently mentions what a terrible situation the Greeks have supposedly left him in, such as when he tells the Trojan army “‘And now I’ve no hope of seeing my old country again, / Or my sweet children or the father I long for: / Perhaps they’ll seek to punish them for my flight, / And avenge my crime through the death of these unfortunates.’” (Virgil, The Aeneid: Book II 138-141) Looking back on this line, it is easy to see that he is trying to elicit sympathy from the Trojans to convince them that he is no longer cooperating with the Greeks. After this succeeds, he immediately moves on to appealing to the Trojans’ sense of pride through statements such as “‘And Calchas ordered them / To raise the huge mass of woven timbers, raised to the sky, / So the gates would not take it, nor could it be dragged / Inside the walls, or watch over the people in their ancient rites.’” (Virgil, The Aeneid: Book II 185-188) In this quote, Sinon is quite clearly making a direct appeal to the Trojan’s sense of pride by presenting them with a supposedly unachievable goal, a basic reverse-psychology
He often abandons his god-given duty, therefore making him impious. After encountering troubles on his odyssey, he strays away from a dutiful, pious mindset and considers the men who died at Troy “Triply lucky” (I.134). He even goes so far as to say, “Why could I not go down… and lose my life on Ilium’s battlefield? (I.137-9). Later, while tarrying in Carthage, he succumbs to Dido’s will and aids in the construction of her city.
Of course, landing on Poseidon's sons’ island. After blinding the ruthless Polyphemus, Odysseus called back to the Cyclope making it possible for him to call unto his father to curse Odysseus to have an agonizing journey home and to have his kingdom in disarray. Just giving Poseidon yet another reason to treat Odysseus badly and make his trip
This appeals to the Plebeians emotion making them feel as if Brutus’ recognition of Caesar justifies his death. Last, Brutus uses logos to make the Plebeians question if they would “rather Caesar/ were living, and die all slaves, than that Caesar were/ dead, to live all freemen? (III.ii.22-24). This makes the Plebeians believe Brutus’ compassion towards the people made him kill Caesar. It justifies that Brutus only killed Caesar for the greater good of Rome.
Poseidon immediately hears this wish. Because Polyphemus is his son, Poseidon is enraged and carries out this wish, as demonstrated throughout the book. The phrases “never” and “broken man” indicate that both Polyphemos and Poseidon crave the worst possible fate for Odysseus. Poseidon has clearly conveyed his hatred for Odysseus, fueling his course of action for Odysseus’s destruction. All in all, Poseidon is ensuring that his influence will ruin Odysseus and impact his destiny negatively.
Who are the Angels and the Devils? In The Odyssey, Homer employs a variety of characteristics to differentiate those who are good and those who are evil. Since The Odyssey takes place in Greek times, the Greek gods must be respected and feared by the mortals and those who disobey their rules are evil and are punished. In addition, The Odyssey is written by the victors, thus depicting Odysseus as the hero who follows the conventions of a traditional hero as good and survives to pass down tradition. In Homer’s The Odyssey, good is depicted by Odysseus who is victorious by following the conventions of traditional heroism and respecting the gods meanwhile, evil struggles to meet this criteria.
This was another example of auctoritas. Creusa killed herself out of fear that she would be caught by the Greeks and become a slave to them. The character of Lausus, who was a solider for the Latiums, exemplified auctoritas through his allegiance to his father, even though he was an awful man. This showed, more specifically, the faithfulness of a son to his father, or fealty, another Roman value. Though he was an enemy of the Trojans, he was still respected by Aeneas, which showed the true extent to which the Trojans valued auctoritas.
The stories of Arachne, Hippolytus, and Odysseus consistently show the disastrous effects of defying social hierarchal norms like irreverence toward one’s superiors. The epic of Odysseus showcases the potential of reward after the dismissal of hubris and the reinstatement of devotion to the gods. While one may be justified in one’s egotism, these stories in classical mythology send the message to citizens of ancient Greece and Rome that above all, one must abide by the rules within hierarchal power structures and pay due respect to those at the heads of
He gives the peroration before the slaughter and calls out their traits and actions that he once had early on in the Odyssey, so this speech is what shows the change within himself. He no longer arrogantly seeks glory or forsake others or the gods for his own sake, like all archetypal Homeric heroes. His heart and mind now are focused on the sake of his wife, son, and kingdom and claiming what is his by right. So he must vanquish the evil that stands in his way and wants to eliminate them and punish for their contempt of the gods and breaking the rules of Xenia as he once had done. Odysseus brings upon his wrath on the suitors, who are much like the younger Odysseus in the earlier tales, which is the easiest way to see that he has changed because he now looks down upon those who have done what he use to be proud
“The horse which Odysseus led up to Troy as a trap filled with men who would destroy great Ilion.” (Homer, The Odyssey, Book VIII, Page 269) When the Trojan’s accepted it, the Greek army sailed away to make the Trojans think they had left, and that night the hidden soldiers got out of the horse and opened the gates to let their comrades in to make a surprise attack on the city and to end the war. The main obstacle that started all of Odysseus’s troubles was his brilliant idea to make the Trojan horse and to have the hidden solders inside to make his plan of attack work. But, while they were attacking the
The Greeks started pillaging the city and setting buildings on fire. The Trojans, surprised by the attack, quickly woke and grabbed weapons. The attack was one-sided. The Trojans stood no chance. During the attack was happening, the Trojan hero Aeneas, son of the goddess Venus and the mortal Anchises, received a message from the gods telling him that Troy was destined to fall.