Eu's Role In Conflict Resolution

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Introduction
Since the end of the 20th century, the European Union (EU) has emerged as a major player in conflict resolution. The reason being is its ever expanding foreign policy. Even though the EU is a newcomer to the field of conflict resolution, the history and traditions of the EU with regards to conflict resolution is far deeper and older than some would imagine. In fact what the EU actually represents is an unfinished product of one of the world’s most successful and greatest endeavours to bring about peace and resolution to countries torn apart by conflicts. The idea behind the founding of the EU was to secure peace after World War II in Western Europe, which would be achieved by integration and for the peaceful settlement of inter-state
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These activities have consisted of short and medium-term actions which have been aimed at civilian and military crisis management, the settlement of conflicts and rehabilitation, as well as long term activities designed to democratization, state-building and social reconciliation.
Within its European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) and its Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), the EU usually takes part in short to medium-term actions within conflict zones. These actions will also include diplomatic mediation efforts, which is done by High Representatives of the CFSP and also through Special Representatives of the EU in conflict areas around the world like the Middle East, Bosnia, Kosovo, Sudan, African Great Lakes Region, Central Asia, Moldova and the South Caucasus. Also within the framework of the ESDP, the EU in 2010, was involved in civilian and military operations which were aimed at peacekeeping, judicial reform, security sector reform and border monitoring in regions like the South Caucasus (EUMM Georgia, EUJUST Lex), Central Afghanistan (EUPOL Afghanistan), the Balkans (EUFOR-Althea, EUPM, EULEX Kosovo) and Africa (EU NAVFOR Somalia, EU SSR Guinea-Bissau EUFOR TCHAD/RCA, EUPOL
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These conditionality policies come in the form of positive or negative conditionality, which is a strategy in conflict resolution that is not very unique to the EU and is mostly used by principal mediators (Cortright, 1997 and Dorussen, 2001; Touval and Zartman 1989). In view of its nature however, the EU is able to offer a more varied collection of benefits and punishments compared to other principal mediators. With regards to international organisations, NGOs and states, examples of benefits and punishments would usually be aid, investments, trade preferences and sanctions (Baldwin 1985), along with guarantees of security, and membership and acknowledgement of international organisations. With regards to the EU, they have a greater option of benefits and punishments. Benefits and punishments would include the granting/withdrawing of trade partialities, customs union membership, and features of the single market, technical and financial assistance and support in the areas of science, technology, economics, energy infrastructure, environment, culture and education along with the addition of EU programmes, institutions and

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