This paper will analyze the role that NATO played in ending the Cold War according to the different international relation perspectives and the effect that the Cold War had on the different theoretical perspectives. Realism, one of the oldest and most fundamental perspectives of international relations focuses on a states material power in regards to the rest of the international system. According to realists, one of the main ways that a state is able to retain and protect its material power is through balancing. Steven Walt, a realist scholar claims that the balance of threat insinuates that states form alliances in order to protect themselves from other states that not only have greater power but also have a higher level of perceived threat due to various factors (Walt, 1985). Realists view NATO as a military alliance that was established out of the need for the
“To lay the foundation of an ever closer union among the peoples of Europe” ( Hancock et al, 663), within the treaty of Rome this is written, creating the European union. Unlike many other institutions the European union is both a supranational and intergovernmental institution. In order for the European Union to function and to thrive the member states must surrender sovereignty to the decision making institutions, however, there are more benefits than losses for the states. Defined in Bale, intergovernmental institutions are those states in cooperation in search of better outcomes but reserve the right to block decisions that they feel are contrary to their interests. In addition, a supranational institution is one body that transcends national boundaries and decision making for the common good of the group.
Non-state actors are important in international politics and the European Commission was the most important non-state international actor. The Commission was expected to be in the position to manipulate both international and domestic pressures on the national governments to advance the process of European integration, even where governments might be reluctant. The neofunctionalists predicted an inexorable progress to further integration but this was all predicated on an internal dynamic, and implicitly assumed that the international background conditions would remain
Regardless of the actor or level of engagement, the principal tool is negotiation or mediation. Preventive military deployments also have a range of possible configurations ranging from humanitarian protection, observation and monitoring of demilitarization, reporting on human rights violations, accompaniment in 4 the return of displaced populations, as well as robust deployments of combat troops for the purpose of deterring an armed conflict or enforcing the terms of a peace
One among them are liberalists or specifically institutional liberalists who claim that this contemporary world peace and connectivity are mainly resulted from the existence of many international institutions, including organizations, treaties, conventions and agreements, within the international system. Nonetheless, this claim does not go unchallenged by other political scientists, especially realists who continue to emphasize the weaknesses of those institutions in favor of their belief that international relations is
It is a means of conducting relations and involves procedures and techniques for maintaining relations among states. It functions through a network of foreign offices, consulates, embassies and missions, which work to identify and settle procedures and protocol. It may handle all issue ranging from the simplest to the most important matters. When there is a breakdown of diplomacy, there is the likelihood of a major crisis of war. It operates in times of peace and war where it undergoes some changes from peace diplomacy to war diplomacy.
In Chapter 1, “PURPOSES AND PRINCIPLES Article 1” one of the points states that a purpose of the UN is to keep international unity and to remove anything that threatens peace (Nations, 1945). Even though at first international laws may seem to only include human rights, they are much more complex and they affect us in many different ways. There are two main types of international laws: Public International Law and Private International Law. Public International Law includes laws that
European identity The civic component being the acceptance of the same democratic values and care for human rights and ethno - cultural being a common cultural history. Many researches have been conducted until now; others following qualitative methods and other following quantitative. Authors of qualitative research support that quantitative data are not ideal to measure identity due to its abstract nature and This research paper will shed light on the issue of identification in European citizens since it recognizes its importance for the future of European Union. Erasmus Programme as a Policy Tool The Erasmus Programme is a policy tool of the European Union and specifically the European commission. It has served over the years many different purposes.
According to the OECD (2012) this mechanisms was thought to include solutions to violence, improper political lobbying and corruption, and because it allows for an international review of the State, it was also thought to serve as a motivation to ameliorate internal institutions. Besides, ISDS makes it easier for host governments to attract international investments providing them with a guarantee of minimum treatment to their businesses abroad (OECD, 2012). Even though, the avobe was clearly understood in the beggingins of the ISDS system. The investor-State scenary has evolved over the years. Allowing for a gap in the investor´s relation to global
Nevertheless, both policies often enjoy a smooth relationship; but, a Nation’s domestic policy can sometimes run contrary to those that are foreign oriented. In course of this study, we shall analyze the influence of terrorism in Nigeria’s policies and her