Initially, soil fertility can increase following deforestation, especially when the forest is burned rather than logged reported by Uhl (1987).Conversion from forest to new forest has smaller long term dramatic effects on soil organic Carbon and bulk density compared to conversion from forest to cropland. It matters whether forest is converted to cropland with annual crops (e.g. maize, cassava, or soy beans), perennial crops (e.g. oil palm, cocoa, or rubber), or forest plantations. The conversion of forest to perennial crops usually results in lower levels in the rates soil fertility decline because – to some extent - these systems mimic the forest cover (Hartemink, 2005b).
Human influences on soil erosion Aspect 1: The effect overgrazing has on soils. Overgrazing is when a farmer stocks (Keeps) too many animals in their land. Examples of such animals are sheep, which pull up the roots of plants, cattle, which kick up the top layer of dirt which is then blown away by the wind, and goats. These animals all damage the surface of the soil and speed up soil erosion. These animals eat the vegetation cover of the area and their hooves dig into the soil, which compacts it into a hard surface in dry regions, meaning it is given a platy structure, which is a very poorly drained soil structure.
In rice, research reports demonstrate that drought not just reduction in grain yield, but also grain quality. Drought is related to constraints in plants causing several negative effects to metabolic processes, including water relations, nutrient uptake and metabolism, and photosynthetic assimilates. Also, it causes the formation of reactive oxygen species ROS, denaturation of protein and damage to nucleic acids. As a result, leaf expansion, photosynthetic rate, tillering process, plant growth and development, and grain productivity and quality are limited. Plants have various defenses against drought stress, including photosynthetic activity reduction, stomatal closure, transpiration decrease, antioxidative enzymes activation, carbohydrate metabolism changes, and organic acids, antioxidants and osmolites accumulation.
DIRECT EFFECTS: In the irrigation scheme, water is drawn from groundwater, lakes or rivers and is distributed over an area to be irrigated area and increased level in water table. Atmospheric moisture has immediate affects due to irrigational methods such as atmospheric circulation which delivers rain to different parts . A key area of concern is the increase and decrease in irrigation which causes an alteration in downwind areas. 3.3. INDIRECT EFFECTS: These are those effects which takes long time to develop and also they lasts for longer time.
Soils can be improved but also degraded through fertilization. The choice of the proper kind of fertilizer and the rate of application are very important issues for crop growth and the environment. It was also found that decreases in profit can be due to either over- or under the recommendation of N fertilization (Bullock and Bullock, 1994). Conventional practices can sometimes result in sizeable fertilizer N losses, especially in extremely wet springs in the Corn Belt (Mathesius and Luce, 2009). In fact, only 30 to 50% of applied N is recovered by the crop in many cases (Raun and Johnson, 1999).
Climate Factor: Humidity, Temperature, Rainfall (i) Effect of Climate on Crops Climate is one of the most important factors that determine the suitable type of crop according to the particular area. The crop production mainly depends on climate. The number of crops variation is determined by climate. Solar energy, temperature, and amount of rainfall are the Climatic factors that influence mainly growth, development and crops production. Influence of Temperature • Temperature is also an important factor for the growth and development of crops.
Fertilizers remove the nutrients of the soil damaging the soil and the local environment and after being mixed with the soil, gradually reduce the fertility of the soil. In the study of (Southland) using fertilizers consists of substances and chemicals like methane, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and nitrogen, the emission of which has contributed to a great extent in the quantity of greenhouse gases present in the environment. These facts are alarming and a serious step needs to be taken as soon as possible to avoid more severe consequences. This in turn is leading to global warming and weather changes. The use of fertilizers for growth and cultivation is keeping our stomach filled for now, but then if things keep on progressing the way they are, it won’t take long to see the times where there is lack of food, water, and health.
Ayoko et al. (2007) observed that usually communities that depend on untreated groundwater for domestic and agricultural purposes are communities that lack adequate infrastructures to monitor water quality regularly and implement control strategies due to poverty. Chenini I and Khemiri S. (2009) noticed that the chemical composition of groundwater is controlled by many factors that include the composition of precipitation, mineralogy of the aquifers, climate, and topography. They concluded that the effect of the combination of these factors can create diverse water types that change in composition spatially and temporally. It is important to mention here that the interaction between groundwater and the host rock is affected by some physical parameters such as temperature, pH, etc.
In the second stage, the information contained on the map is used for precise execution of the treatment . The effect of such an action is to save plant protection products and fertilizers, reduce the chemicalization of agriculture and prevent overfertilisation of fields. Sometimes the total spreading of e. g. fertiliser on the field surface is very similar to the amount of
An indicator reflecting the loss of nitrate to groundwater would be effect-based.  The environmental impact of agriculture involves a variety of factors from the soil, to water, the air, animal and soil diversity, people, plants, and the food itself. Some of the environmental issues that are related to agriculture are climate change, deforestation, genetic engineering, irrigation problems, pollutants, soil degradation, and