It is more costly than copper even though consist of plentiful and low in price raw substance which is sand. The optical fibers are more costly to buy, they are more costly to install and need to fixed by the experts. They are not as vigorous as the wires, they have special trial equipment is frequently indispensable to the optical fiber and the installation costs are still high. Although, one fiber can bring numerous more signals than a single copper cable and the big transmission distances mean that less costly repeaters is
Fibre optic cables have gradually taken over as the transmission medium in local area networks as public telephone and data networks. Compared with electrically conductive cables are fibre-optic cables superior properties with respect to the range and bandwidth. The base material is glass and in some cable types of plastic. The cables therefore contain no metal and uses light transmission. Light waves have much greater bandwidth than electrical waves when the light wavelength is very short and the frequency correspondingly high.
1.1 Wireless communication There are various generation in the wireless system. We are running with the 4 G wireless system which is more focused on the high speed data communication. The demand for higher capacity with low error has raised manifolds, mainly due to cellular telephony although expected to be soon eclipsed by wireless data applications. The various digital signal processing algorithms like IFFT, FFT can be implemented with the advent of modern chip technology. Due to the success of 2G wireless communication standards especially CDMA technique it has been shown that communication ideas can be implemented in practice .
Companies within this sector compete in many different aspects including price, service, and quality. As previously discussed, WFM’s chooses to differentiate itself based on the strategy of offering high quality products; which positions them as the high cost, premium retailer. As a result of this positioning, WFM faces strong competition because of low switching costs and becomes a
DEW also gives a variety of many different distributors that it should not be that difficult for them to locate one. If DEW requires their distributors to maintain a minimum inventory level, this may be a good short-term option, but if the company wants to stay in business long term, this may not be the best thing to
Chapter 4 OPTICAL EFFECTS IN OPTICAL FIBER SENSING SYSTEMS: In an optical sensing system, the measurand can be any environmental parameters that may affect an optic signal. These parameters include temperature, strain, bending, and pressure. The optic signal guided by a fiber is either modulated by the measurands inside the fibre or outside the fibre at a sensing head through many kinds of optic effects. These optical effects include: optical Doppler effect, Sagnac effect, photoelectric effect, electro-optic effect, magneto-optical effect, and scattering including Raman scattering and Brillouin scattering. There are two different groups of scattering effects in the optical fiber, the linear scattering and the nonlinear scattering.
Therefore, 2N-1 wavelengths are sufficient and necessary for a WRMD WDM unidirectional ring with N node to be wide-sense nonblocking for any multicast assignment. Next, we present a simple wavelength assignment algorithm for unidirectional ring. Assume that the wavelengths available are numbered as When a new connection is requested with destination node index i, assign an unmodulated wavelength if source node index is less than destination node. Else assign an unmodulated wavelength for connection from RN to source node and after modulation again to RN. At RN, t is converted to and routed
I.INTRODUCTION The advent of high speed global communication ranks as one of the important developments of human civilization from the second half of twentieth century to till date. This was only feasible with the introduction of digital communication systems. Today there is a need for high speed and efficient data transmission over the communication channels. It is a challenging task for the engineers and scientists to provide a reliable communication service by utilizing the available resources effectively in-spite many factors that distort the signal. The main objective of the digital communication system is to transmit symbols with minimum errors.
Question - Present a case study on different transmission lines origin and their usage. Ans - What are Transmission lines? Transmission lines are cables or other structure which are specialized and designed for conducting AC (alternating current) of very high frequencies. For such currents with high frequency, the wave nature has to be taken into account. Ordinary electrical cables are enough to carry audio signals and AC of low frequencies, like mains power in which the direction is reversed 100 to 120 times in a second but they cannot be used to carry currents of very high frequencies, above thirty kilohertz.
Telecommunications has relied on digital methods to transmit messages. In the early 1980s, enhanced fiber optics enabled the development of digital communication networks. Digital technology replaced analog signals for many telecommunication forms, particularly cellular telephone and cable systems. Analog-to-digital converters utilized pulse code modulation (PCM) to change analog data into digital signals. Compared to analog transmissions, digitized signals were less distorted and could easily be