Kramarae (1981:145), on the other hand, states that ‘men specialize in instrumental or task behaviours and women specialize in expressive or social activities’. Society’s sex-stereotyping of jobs influence girls’ behaviour and expectations, and encourage positive attitude towards language learning while society’s division of tasks and assumptions according to sex is transferred to boys and girls through formal and informal instruction. This alliance between society-education may explain boys’ and girls’ different concerns, attitudes and expectations. Girls’ communicative skills are enhanced if not maximised because of their expected patterns of interaction. Consequently, girls may develop a liking for languages.
The American society expects different attitudes and behaviors from boys and girls through culture tradition. As the children grow up, parents, media, and education all effect how they perceive their own gender rather than having it based on biological gender. Gender socialism first starts when parents are wanting to know what is the gender of their first child. This is the beginning of a social categorization process that will continue throughout the child’s life. At this part of the child’s life, she or he will be affected most by their gender definition.
Baby Alive! A toy that prepares young girls for motherhood! Gender roles in society are imposed upon us through many different ways such us what we are expected to wear and even how we are supposed to behave. Before being born, children are assigned a gender because of their sex and from there one their parents decide what their name will be, what colors they will wear, what toys they will like, etc. For female children, parents buy them toys that are assigned to their gender such as baby dolls.
“Sex role” theory explains gender patterns by appealing to the social customs that define proper behaviour for women and for men. Applied to men, “sex role” theory emphasizes the way expectations about proper masculine behaviour are conveyed to boys as they grow up, by parents, teachers and the society. This is a plausible approach to some issues about masculinity. However “sex
Studies have shown both male and female children have a preference for blue when younger. A serious and lasting affect that these sex-specific toys have is it makes girls feel as though they have to have a certain job that’s fit for females or even be a house wife or stay at home mom. Now the affects of this weren 't so prominent in the 1920s mostly because those gender roles were heavily set in the 1920s, but after the second wave of feminism the gendered toys had become more prominent because of the backlash on feminism. Places like target have vowed to make the toy isles less gendered and more for all
This discrimination that I’m referring to is something that is very common. If we want a change to occur, we must behave in a respectable manner. How will we initiate this change? Certain gender beliefs can lead to personal biases about individuals. “Children themselves become active participants in this gendering process by the time they are conscious of the social relevance of gender, typically before the age of two” (Kane, 2006, p. 150).
GENDER THEORIES Observation ,imitation ,rewards and punishment – these are the mechanisms by which gender develops according to social cognitive theory .Interactions between the child and the social environments are the main keys to gender development in this view .Two cognitive theories-cognitive developmental theory and gender schema theory- *The Cognitive Development Theory of Gender stated that children’s gender typing occurs after children think of themselves as boys and girls. Once they consistently conceive of themselves as male or female, children prefer activities, objects and attitudes consistent with this label. -Gender schema theory suggests that young children are influenced by society's ideas
According to the “Gender and Group Process: A Developmental Perspective” by Maccoby who illustrates that sex typing, socialization pressure, and same-sex groups that mediate and influences on our gender development as we grow up. Sex typing obtains sex distinctive characteristics such as various of behaviors, interests, personality traits, and cognitive biases in which to identify the person is becoming more/less masculine/feminine. Also, socialization pressures from parents tend to shape the child gender identity toward their biological sex by giving the toys and activity preferences, acknowledge the gender stereotypes, and their personality traits. Social psychologists claim that same-sex groups and group size are matters which can describe
For instance, “the unprivileged life of females starts from birth” (Shirnapour). In Iran when a female baby is born she is already limited because she is not a male. Even in early education there is considerable difference in what males and females are taught like “teaching the Koran (Islamic sacred book) to children, mostly for boys only” (Shirnapour). These books were written to emphasize to women the different roles between men and women. They were written to prepare them to be better mothers and housewives.
The documentary “The Pinks and the Blues” and the podcast “Can a Child be Raised Free of Gender Stereotypes” discuss the unconscious gender stereotypes and assumptions that our culture places upon children. Children are enculturated with ideas about who they should be, how they should think and behave, and this enculturation has distinct effects upon the child psychology and way of living in the world. The viewer is left with the question: Is it possible to raise a child without gender stereotypes? “The Pinks and the Blues” states that gendered treatment of children begins within 24 hours of the child’s birth. Descriptors for male infants and female infants were different, with boys being labeled as big, strong, and alert while girls were labeled as being delicate, petite, and inattentive.