Various resection procedures described are : root amputation, hemisection, radisection and bisection. Root amputation refers to removal of one or more roots of multirooted tooth while other roots are retained. Hemisection denotes removal or separation of root with its accompanying crown portion of mandibular molars. Radisection is a newer terminology for removal of roots of maxillary molars. Bisection / bicuspidization is the separation of mesial and distal roots of mandibular molars along with its crown portion, where both segments are then retained individually.This is a review of various literatures citing Hemisection and Bicuspidization
CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS: PTM may manifest itself as diastema, flaring, tipping or tilting of the teeth, proximal drifting, rotations, and extrusions. This alteration may occur in an individual tooth, or a segment of teeth or an entire arch .No matter what may be the clinical picture, but the underlying cause is almost always a weakened periodontium as a result of moderate to severe periodontitis. Since periodontitis is a painless process, unless in severe stages, patients tend to ignore it and approach the clinicians occasionally for complaints of tooth mobility or migration. ETIOLOGY: The loss of periodontal support: Forces that are tolerable to an intact periodontium become deleterious when periodontal support is reduced (Carranza et al 2006). Loss of periodontal support is the chief predisposing factor as it epitomizes a reduction of a tooth resistance to impact of outer pressures.
Ocular examination reveals conjunctival and ciliary congestion, profound decrease in vision even up to perception of light with accurate or inaccurate projection of rays. Corneal oedema, hypopyon, signs of uveitis, reduction in intraocular pressure, exudation in vitreous leading to reduced or absent fundus reflex are the other associated features. The clinical picture is variable depending upon the route of entry, infectious process and duration of disease. Precaution & Prevention: The prognosis is better if one does not attempt to squeeze or puncture the Endophthalmitis, as infection may spread to adjacent tissues. Also, patients are recommended to call a doctor if they encounter problems with vision, the eyelid bump becomes very painful, the Endophthalmitis bleeds or reoccurs, or the eyelid or eyes becomes
there were gingival hyperplasias, multiple nodular lesions on the posterior neck, in the nares, on the ears bilaterally. no obvious osteolytic lesions or joint deformities were noted. The lesions were soft to firm in consistency and non-tender. There was no significant lymphadenopathy or hepatosplenomegaly. Hematological and biochemical investigations were within normal limits.
A clinician should have complete knowledge of anatomic variation of macrostructure and internal and external root canal anatomy. A successful endodontic treatment includes locating the root canal orifice ,chemico mechanical cleaning and shaping of root canals before a dense root canal filling with a hermetic seal. It is known that mandibular first molar can display significant anatomical variations namely as number of roots, number of root canals and morphology. The presence of an additional root located lingually (the radix entomolaris) or buccally (radix paramolaris) has been reported some times in mandibular molars. However, in such a case, an awareness and understanding of this unusual root and its root canal morphology can contribute to
Treatment: a. Endodontic treatment b. Apicectomy c. Extraction in case of severe bone loss d. Enucleation with 1ry closure e. Marsupilization with larger ones VI. CHRONIC ALVEOLAR ABSCESS Etiology: a. Pulpal necrosis b. Associated with chronic periapical periodontitis and abscess Signs and Symptoms: a. A sinus tract is usually common opening into the oral cavity b. Generally asymptomatic Diagnosis: a.
Surgical mandibulo maxillary fixation (MMF) is a proven method of stabilizing most maxillofacial fractures involving the maxilla and/or mandible . Different surgical options available for treating maxillofacial fractures include open reduction internal fixation (ORIF), open reduction, closed reduction, and orbital reconstruction. Treatment outcomes usually rely on the nature of injury, type of fracture, expertise of surgeon, and devices/technology used . Infection is the most commonly reported complication of surgical treatment. Other less common complications include malunion of fractures, malocclusion, and temporomandibular joint disorder .
The goal of dentistry is to replace missing teeth to restore masticatory function and aesthetics. Treatment of such situation is either removable prostheses or a fixed bridge framework, which not only cause discomfort to the patient but also involves the preparation of one or more healthy teeth.1 Autotransplantation involves the transfer of tooth from one portion of alveolus to another site in the same individual. This site may be either an extraction site or a fresh surgically prepared alveolar segment.2 A tooth germ with early Hertwig’s epithelial root sheath (HERS) formation can be successfully transplanted if it is well placed in the bony socket and wrapped with soft tissue.3 A successful outcome of a transplanted tooth provides improved
Pulpotomy is the treatment for cariously exposed pulps in deciduous teeth. The formocresol pulpotomy strategy keeps on being utilized as a part of clinical practice even today. Different strategies have been analyzed with an end goal to locate an all the more naturally worthy and viable distinct option for formocresol. Other non-pharmacologic hemostatic systems, for example, electrosurgery and laser treatment have been recommended and research on the utilization of lasers for pulpotomy in deciduous teeth is exceptionally sparse.114 Study by Gonzalez et al (1996) exploring the utilization of CO2 lasers, Nd: YAG and Argon laser to dental tissues have demonstrated their capability to expand recuperating, empower dentinogenesis and save imperativeness
Periodic and gradual reduction of the cusp/ recontouring followed by application of a desensitizing agent/ Fluoride agents, reduction of cusp with or without endodontic therapy, sealant application on the grooves, and esthetic restorations are the various treatment options available. The main objective of the treatment is to provide better esthetics, function (elimination of occlusal/ Incisal interferences) and prevent the occurrence of dental caries, periodontal problems in the involved tooth.