Well, according to Mayo Clinic’s page titled Alzheimer’s disease – symptoms and causes last updated December 30, 2017, genetic factors such as your family history, having Down syndrome, or even your gender can create a risk for Alzheimer’s disease. 1. Similar to other diseases like, say, cancer, having family members who have it can increase your chance of getting it, though specific genes have been difficult to truly pin. 2. For those with Down syndrome, a gene contained in the extra chromosome increase the risk.
INTRODUCTION Periodontal diseases is a common infection which involves the periodontium. The periodontium are the tissues surrounding the tooth. Cardiovascular diseases on the other hand is a condition that involves the narrowing of blocked blood vessels that can lead to a series of conditions such as cardiac arrest, angina or stroke due to age, hypertension, diabetics, obesity, serum lipid concentration and abnormal habits. Periodontal diseases have been associated with cardiovascular diseases.  Based on researches, for the past three decades, increasing cardiovascular diseases has been sought out due to the impact of oral hygiene.
Introduction Gingivitis is the inflammation of the gingiva. Plaque is a requirement for the development of gingivitis (Informational Paper, 1999). Periodontitis is a polymicrobial disease in which disease expression involves intricate interactions of the plaque biofilm with the host inflammatory response and subsequent alterations in bone and connective tissue metabolism (Kornman, 2008)1. Although mechanical plaque control methods have the potential to maintain adequate levels of oral hygiene, clinical experience and population-based studies have shown that such methods are not being employed as accurately as they should be by a large number of people. Therefore, several chemotherapeutic agents have been developed to control bacterial plaque,
Chronic periodontitis Chronic Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of the teeth caused by specific microorganisms or groups of specific microorganisms, leading to progressive destruction of the attachment apparatus of the teeth including periodontal ligament, cementum and alveolar bone with periodontal pocket formation, and recession of the gingival tissue(1) . The clinical feature that characterizes periodontitis from gingivitis is the presence of clinically apparent attachment loss. This loss mainly is associated with changes in the density and height of subjacent alveolar bone (1). Severe generalized periodontitis affects 5–15% of any population worldwide and is a major cause of teeth loss after dental caries (2). Chronic Periodontitis also known as adult periodontitis or chronic adult
INTRODUCTION The major goals of periodontal therapy includes elimination of infection and controlling inflammation in order to arrest the progression of disease, and also the regeneration of lost tissues. Various biomaterials have been used for the treatment of intrabony defects and have demonstrated variable results . Recently, biological modifiers (growth factors) demonstrated their ability to stimulate cells which are located in periodontal defect and resulted in proliferation and differentiation of periodontal ligament cells . Biological modifiers are materials or proteins that have the potential to modify the host tissue so as to enhance wound healing process. These growth factors comprise platelet derived (PDGF), insulin
Secondly " aggressive periodontitis" which is known of it 's rapid loss of gums and bone destruction. Then we have "periodontitis as a manifestation of systemic disease" this type develop or appear with some other diseases such as diabetes and cardiopulmonary diseases, this type of periodontitis has more affect on children. And last but least "necrotizing periodontitis disease" this one is accompanied by necrosis of periodontal ligament, alveolar bones or some gum tissues, it 's more dangerous to people with some sort of systemic disease or people who suffer from immune deficiency disorder. all these types of periodontitis have a couple of similar symptoms, swollen gums, change of color and some tenderness, as well as loose teeth and some changes in how they fit together in the mouth. Of course all these symptoms and diseases could be prevented by keeping a good oral hygiene, in which a one should at least brush his teeth twice a day, floss for at least once a day and try to keep routine visits to the
SUMMARYBackground: Ocular trauma is a leading cause of monocular blindness worldwide. Indeveloping countries, eye injuries are not only more common but also more severe in theireffect and this may be attributed to socioeconomic background, inadequate safety measures,lack of optimum treatment facilities, use of traditional eye medication and poor education. Objective: To determine the pattern of eye injuries and their visual outcome in TeachingHospitals in Enugu State.Methods: This prospective cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out at the eye clinicsand emergency units of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/ Ozalla and theEnugu State University of Science and Technology Teaching Hospital, Park Lane
SectionІІ: Overview of infection prevention for general clinical practice: According to Tietjen 2008, microorganisms are the causative agents of infection. They include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. In the context of infection prevention, bacteria can be further divided into three categories: vegetative (e.g., staphylococcus), mycobacteria (e.g., tuberculosis), and endospores (e.g., tetanus), which are the most difficult to kill. He also added that asepsis or aseptic technique is a general term used to describe the combination of efforts made to prevent entry of microorganisms into any area of the body where they are likely to cause infection. The goal of asepsis is to reduce to a safe level, or eliminate, the number of microorganisms
INTRODUCTION Wound infections are one of the bad complications in patients undergoing surgeries. Consequently, infections of different organs or tissues that visible to surgeons may lead to significant increment of postoperative morbidity and mortality beside prolongation of hospital stay.1 It has been well documented that eradication of wound infection resulted in significant increment of patient comfort and decreased medical costs.2 Onche and Adedeji3 stated that Staphylococcus aureus is the predominate cause of surgical wound and nosocomial infections. Currently, the antibiotic drug resistance is a fast growing concern in wound infection management beside the risk of impairment of wound healing, bacteraemia, or even sepsis.4 National Nosocomial
Dental caries is one of the most common and2 multifactorial human diseases that has widely affected vast majority of individuals all over the world3.It is induced by acids developed by the dental plaque adhering to the tooth surface.4 Different circumstance effect dental aspect.Interaction between detrimental and defensive factors are crucial.Microorganisms, sugar, and unhealthy eating habits are disastrous to dental aspect, while saliva, oral hygiene, and the natural resistance of the teeth serve as the defensive equilibrium.1 Bacterial plaque plays the initial role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Dental plaque is a ordinary term for the diverse microbial community (predominantly bacteria) found on the tooth surface, fixed in a matrix of polymers of bacterial and salivary origin. Plaque is an example of a biofilm; current researches are showing that the properties of bacteria associated with a surface in a biofilm.In other words plaque is found at protected and stagnant surfaces, and these are at the greatest threat of disease .3 Diet has a local response on oral health, primarily on the integrity of the teeth,pH, and composition of the saliva and plaque. Nutrition, however, has a systemic response on the integrity of the oral cavity, including teeth, periodontium
This article also discussed the fact that diabetes increases the chance of having other health complications in older adults. That includes cardiovascular disorders, microvasular disease, cognitive dysfunction and functional impairments. The importance of daily physical activities, medically nutritional therapy, self management and medication therapies for treatment of diabetes were also discussed. According to this article teachings and
Lockjaw, also more commonly know as tetanus or Clostridium tetani, is a desease caused by bacterial infection. the bacterium Clostridium tetani, is commonly found in soil, saliva, dust, and manure and can be introduced to the blood stream via a skin puncture, the bacterium produces a toxin called Tetanospasmin which interferes with muscle contractions, resulting in muscle spasms or spasmodic muscle contractions. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetanus). Tetanospasmin permanently binds receptors, so in that sense it can 't be cured. In the case of advanced tetanus treatment involves antibiotics and paralytics while being put on a respirator, which is needed until your receptors regenerate.
aeruginosa’s ability to mutate genetically and transform into different antibiotic-resistant strains, make it the most important bacteria species studied among patients suffering from CF. It’s ability to form a glycocalyx and prevent the host’s white blood cells to attach and phagocytize the pathogen also contributes to its importance of a pathogen. The formation of a biofilm communicates to the bacterial colony that it is being attacked by antibiotics and to mutate to adapt and survive. The mutation of the bacteria to form an alginate to protect it from environmental stresses as well as the ability to release powerful exotoxins to inhibit protein synthesis of the host’s cells add to P. aeruginosa virulence and ability to develop chronic lung infections in CF
According to biological dentists and those researchers before them, a root canal cannot be fully sterilized and therefore always remains infected.14 For starters, the gutta percha used as a sealant shrinks as it dries. Bacteria can then escape from the tooth. The periodontal ligament, the shock absorber between the tooth and jawbone, becomes a breeding ground for these harmful bacteria. When pressure in the form of biting, chewing or grinding is applied to the tooth, bacteria and their toxins can squirt out into the lymph system and bloodstream and travel to other parts of the body and create or exacerbate disease and illness.15 Over 150 different types of bacteria have been discovered which can make root canaled teeth their