In the epic poem The Odyssey, Homer portrays Greek gods and goddesses as possessing human qualities and faults. Through their actions and emotions, Homer emphasizes the detrimental effects of lust, envy, wrath, and greed in ancient Grecian society. He also never fails to remind readers of the importance of respect for holy figures because of their powerful abilities to create chaos and wonder". Homer wants to prove that gods and humans share a variety of traits, and the only difference is that god don’t allow these flaws negatively to impact their society. To help further his argument, we can compare Greek gods and goddesses to that of Christianity.
They are expected to serve the suitors and put up with their rude demeanor. Furthermore, social traditions like xenia for example are strong, important and sacred. That is the most important reason why Penelope and Telemachus can’t take the suitors out of the palace, despite their disgraceful behavior. This typical realistic scene of Ancient Greece blends with the supernatural throughout the epic. In fact, there are many examples in the Odyssey when fantasy is present in the epic’s reality:
The Odyssey teaches many interesting themes all through the book. I believe the most evident theme was an individual's relation with the gods. “No, it’s the Earth-shaker, Poseidon, unappeased, forever fuming against him for the cyclops whose giant eye he blinded…”
Throughout the Odyssey, Odysseus is known through many names from the characters he encounters. For instance, he is known as “raider of cities” (561) implying that Odysseus’ reputation will be known toward other islands that he has blinded a Cyclops. This means that other people will know and they will beware of Odysseus. Odysseus’ idea of heroism is him spreading his name so people would be terrified of him. Odysseus also says he his is “Laertes’ son” (561) which is saying that he is the King of Ithaca and related to the god, Zeus.
At book 1, she told Telemachus that she is Mentes, lord of Taphian, in order to provide information about Telemachus' father (1.208-246). The reason behind this is obvious: the suitors would notice their conversation and thus would bring great danger to the prince. However, Athena's guise is nothing as the ordinary deceits that mortals have performed, her practice is not all about practicality but also a divine privilege, or it might be Homer's notion of
Who are the Angels and the Devils? In The Odyssey, Homer employs a variety of characteristics to differentiate those who are good and those who are evil. Since The Odyssey takes place in Greek times, the Greek gods must be respected and feared by the mortals and those who disobey their rules are evil and are punished. In addition, The Odyssey is written by the victors, thus depicting Odysseus as the hero who follows the conventions of a traditional hero as good and survives to pass down tradition.
The stories of Arachne, Hippolytus, and Odysseus consistently show the disastrous effects of defying social hierarchal norms like irreverence toward one’s superiors. The epic of Odysseus showcases the potential of reward after the dismissal of hubris and the reinstatement of devotion to the gods. While one may be justified in one’s egotism, these stories in classical mythology send the message to citizens of ancient Greece and Rome that above all, one must abide by the rules within hierarchal power structures and pay due respect to those at the heads of
But you disgrace a state, that deserved better --- / Your own ---- by your own act;" (The Theban Plays, 89). Theseus is acknowledging that it is a religious act to provide refuge for those in need. The god of all gods, Zeus, has the epithet God of Guests which shows the importance of refuge. For Creon to take Oedipus and go against this religious act is hubris to the tenth degree. There is no more direct correlation of defiance to take a person that is under refuge not just of Theseus but of the gods and uproot him.
‘The Odyssey” where Odysseus tries to persuade his crew to bypass Thrinacia, the island of the sun god Helios, but they were too stubborn and insisted on landing. Due to their ignorance, and refusal to listen to Odysseus they accidentally angered the god Helios and to appease Helios Zeus sent down a thunderbolt on their ship killing all of Odysseus’s crew except himself. This is proof of how this was not entirely his fault, and how his name and reputation of being a hero shouldn’t be
Hektor, in life, did the gods honor through pious sacrifices of “oxen and unblemished goats”, yet the gods do Hektor dishonor, by allowing his body to be mercilessly brutalized by Achilles. Here, honor works as a currency, something that can be owed by the gods to mortals. Later in the passage, it is revealed that honor can equally be owed by mortals to the divine, through Achilles’ relationship with the gods. As Apollo’s speech progresses, he addresses why the gods are unjust in their support of Achilles because Achilles’ actions, themselves, are unjust.
After reading, I believe that the human characters were responsible for the progression, resolution, and overall plot in the book. Understandably, many would believe that the gods were the ones responsible for what happened; but the gods create and formulate scenarios for the humans to tackle. For instance, there are times when the humans do not obey the gods’ orders; For example, when Odysseus was once instructed by Leucothoe, a goddess who resides in the sea, to leave his raft he decided not to because he did not think he would be able to reach land if he were to.
Universal human experiences: occurrences that happen to all people. Throughout the Odyssey, Odysseus struggles with engendering, and searches for, connections to other people. The universal human experience portrayed in the Odyssey of connecting with other people is shown through Odysseus's struggle with honest, loyalty, and From some of the events that happen in the Odyssey, it is clear that Odysseus struggles with honesty. This is especially shown in some of the interactions with his crew. After receiving the wind bag from Boreas (Homer ), Odysseus is given explicit instructions to not open the bag.
In epic Greek poems, gods have a major influence in the overall storyline and the Odyssey is no exception. The gods and goddesses constantly are appearing sometimes in a disguised form, but all nonetheless crafting the scenes to their accord so that they may offer gratitude for the mortal’s loyalty or to gain revenge for their disloyalty. Not only do they alter events, but people also alter their actions while keeping the appeasement of gods in mind. By paying respect to the gods, the characters express much more than a simple gesture of reverence; instead, it is also a way of showing compassion for something other than themselves. Odysseus strategically exploits his devotion to the gods in various scenes in a way to improve his own character
Many people rely on a sense of linear time, oftentimes looking at life as a timeline of early years, middle years, and then eventual death. To deal with this, many may make to-do lists and attempt to “manage time”. This sense of time is known as chronos, named after a Greek titan who was overthrown by his father and cast into Tartarus, a prison for titans, where he still ticks. One is always able to feel the effects of the ticking clock, and time may feel like a burden. Despite this linear understanding of time, the Greeks understood that life is not a rut, and thus developed a different sense of time known as kairos.