Kotter and Schlesinger (1979): Four reasons as to why personnel resist to changes:
1. Own personal interest – People rather look as to what impact the changes will have to them rather than the impact the changes will have to the organisation
2. Misunderstanding – information hasn’t been devolved appropriately or is misleading
3. Little tolerance
4. Diverse judgement to the change – Some people will not realise that is a change is required or believe the changes should be carried out differently.
The first step to take to decrease the intent to resist the change plan is to depersonalise the issue. “Depersonalising the problem decreases the emotional reactivity to the situation, which allows for, and even encourages change. Once the emotional reactivity has dissipated, the firm and employees are able to move into the change mode.” (Balestracci, 2003, p. 42)
Kotter and Schlesinger suggest that the six main resistances to change approaches are the following:
1. Education and Communication – communicate with the employees prior to the change and inform them on the change process and why is essential, this will prevent misleading information to get to different people. This will allow employees to become part of the change process and feel the need to cooperate “Persuasion becomes crucial. Persuasion calls for an ability to listen well enough to know what matters to people” (Reardon, et al., 1998, p. 139)
2. Participation and involvement- Allow employees to participate in the
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Change is inevitable. It is the only thing that is constant in life. Resistance to change is a natural reaction, rooted in our past experiences, cultural norms, and innate psychological needs for certainty and control. The concept of change is very challenging for many individuals. Hesitation about accepting change reduces the possibilities and opportunities for development and limits opportunities.
Change is an unavoidable part of life. According to Timmins (2011), very often people feel safe in their routine, they do not like changes, and they do not want to leave their comfort zones. Increasing knowledge and involving in decision making process can decrease fear, anger, and resistance to changes. People plan to changes can use different change theory and they can find one the best for them.
If employees don’t change their attitude and old practices to embrace new ones ;it will break the company. Resistance is something that every company experiences. Many employees tend to resist to changes. Reinforcement should be applied. There is three stages of the Lewin’s change model which are unfreezing,changing and refreezing.
This is experienced as a result of the desire to maintain status quo. In some organizations, a minor change to the responsibilities of the organizations requires much time and resources (Want, 2006). Change can lead to conflict. Individuals become attached to things they consider as the norm of their workplace. When change occurs the employees have difficulty of letting go of the status qou.
Key factors to change management principles and activities would include: • Generate a sense of urgency – as the learning and development director and leader I would inspire, drive, and create the energy required to make change happen by creating the atmosphere to move an organization forward. • Shape a guiding union – with an organization that is geographically dispersed, building relationships and getting buy-in is critical while ensuring each member or team understands the organizational value of any necessary
Releasing too much information about change can cause some employees to feel that changes are not needed or that their jobs may soon be on the chopping block if the proposed changes take place. In these instance organization have released change proposals that do not fully detail the changes that are projected to occur within the organization. This is done in an effort to curb the fears and resistance to change that is slated to happen. Consequently this can also cause more problems for organizations and lead to apprehension among employees. Resistance to change is human nature and therefore unavoidable.
Sometimes open-finished and flighty procedure which obliges organizations to create suitable social and behavioral abilities as a feature of their natural state of mind. These strategies regularly seen extensive ways to deal with change which take us to drastic approaches, as an Assitant Manager for Walmart these types of changes are difficult to execute with folks that been with the company for more than 15 years of service changes are not well acepted you have to rehearse as transformative CM. Lewin have a method of basicaly look outside the box and visualize the pro and cons of a proyect or a task . The Lewinian system instruct us in the basic and ways to develop and have morally based approach to manage change. We have done this in many ways with out noticing it we have basic standards that our organizations provide us with by demonstrating how an appreciation to changes, these methods for Lewin‟s four segments (3 - step, AR, FT, GD) recommends that and quote “social change can naturally happen to pair with adjustments in individual identification”.
As the Greenfield Police Department chief, what changes would you implement to improve morale and increase motivation among officers not pursuing supervisory positions? I would go back to monthly awards but tailor them around community policing. If officers are not interested in pursuing supervisory positions they need additional motivation to showing up for work and giving it 100%. Is resistance to change a sign of low morale and lack of motivation?
As mentioned earlier, communication and information provision help reduce employee’s resistance to change and hence create an organizational culture that values change. According to Gill (2002), communication is the ‘blood’ of organizations and ‘oxygen’ of change implementation. Poor communication between leaders and the individual staff, on the other hand, could impede change programs (Huczynski and Buchanan, 2001, cited in Burnes, 2003). Frahm and Brown (2005) identify three communication channels, namely strategic information provision by top management, operational information provision by direct supervisors and conversations between peers (cited in Peus et al., 2009). During strategic information provision, top executives explain why changes are necessary and define their expectations from these changes projects, whereas during operational information provision, direct supervisors clarify roles and responsibilities during change processes and new requirements, if any, after the change and answer questions.
This literature review will be covering the topic on research paradigms. There are three major paradigms in the research paradigms which are the positivist paradigm research, interpretivist paradigm research and critical paradigm research. Each research paradigm has its own strengths and effectiveness due to their unique features which are specific to their particular approach as well as weaknesses. All researchers have their own beliefs and methods while conducting a research. Therefore, the ways of research studies conducted are vary.
Kurt Lewin’s theory (1947) cited in Wise (2007) is one of the most frequently used methods of change management. Comparing to other models of change, this model has been choosing in this dissertation as it provides a vigorous, theoretical sight of the change. It is also, one of the simplest models and easy to implement (Barr and Dowding 2008). It is important to highlight on that Lewin’s model is usually focuses on driving forces and resistance forces. The driving force is when the change agent attempts to initiate the change while resistance force is when the individual refused to follow to change (Kritsonis 2005).
Hence, leaders need to be prepared and manage readiness to the alteration by making an environment of honesty and transparency for their team as a successful implementation of the change is unlikely. Employees must be part of the change hence, they must to be told about the requirement of the change and be given a reward to motivate to embrace the change. If change be accepted by all recipients it can be implemented quickly and effectively. The leaders’ attitudes and behaviors have both positive and negative alterations on the change success. Therefore, leaders of organizations need to try and develop a more framing and shaping behavior, adding skills on themselves to change and motivate the subordinates towards the embracing the change.
My experience in Change Management is very limited. The theoretical knowledge I have acquired during the first four weeks of this module has made me realize that transforming organizations is a difficult and complex task. I have read case studies mentioning the unique contribution of change leaders whose role is to talk to people’s hearts and minds. I have also understood how important is to reconcile conflicting interests and emergent tensions between top-down transformation initiatives and functional operations. Despite the widespread belief that managing change is tough, there is little agreement regarding the factors which influence change the most.
Approach-Approach Conflict- Staying single or start dating someone new is a recent conflict I dealt with. The reason I believe it to be an Approach-Approach Conflict is simply because they are both good things. I love being single and living on my own. I don’t have to answer to anyone and I can come and go as I please.