Signs and Symptoms Symptoms experienced by patients clinically diagnosed with dementia include drastic mood and personality changes, problems with language, decrease in motivation and forgetfulness. There is a gradual decline in cognitive abilities and memory, impairing day to day living. 3.1 Physiological Symptoms Physiological symptoms include body tremors, balance problems, memory distortions, trouble eating or swallowing, among other key signs. In the initial stages of dementia- mild cognitive impairment, the signs and symptoms of the disorder are tenuous. Symptoms during this stage include memory difficulty such as anomia and problems with executive functions.
The article titled “Half of Alzheimer 's cases misdiagnosed” made it evidently clear that Alzheimer’s disease is a disease we have yet to fully understand or treat. Not only is there a lack of information about this disease, it is common for the similar side effects of dementia to be confused with Alzheimer’s disease. To clarify what dementia and Alzheimer’s disease is, I will provide an authentic definition of each. To begin, I will state that there are different forms of dementia. According to a site that specializes in providing information about dementia and Alzheimer’s disease, states that “Dementia is a general term for loss of memory and other mental abilities severe enough to interfere with daily life.
It is a disorder that progressively develops. The cause for this disorder is unknown. Parkinson’s disease consist four main motor symptoms which are; bradykinesia, involuntary shaking or tremor at rest, stiffness of the arms or legs and postural inability. As well as these motor symptoms there are non- motor symptoms as well. Such as, depression, anxiety and irritability, cognitive changes, hallucinations, delusions, sleep disorders, sexual problems, loss of sense of smell and impulsive control disorders.
Finally, the vegetative state can be a as a result of progressive brain damage. This is a situation where the brain gets damaged gradually as a result of diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s disease or a brain tumour and eventually leads to the individual going into a vegetative state (Gosseries et al, 2011). Categories of the Vegetative stage There are two categories of the vegetative state depending on the length that the patient has been in the state. The two categories are the following: i. Continuing/ persistent vegetative
Specific Needs of the Older Person Prepared by Margaret Mills For Care Skills QQI level 5 Assignment February 2016 Introduction In this project we are going to look at the Specific Needs of the Older Person with the chronic illness dementia. We will look at the physiological and psychological changes that occur the person’s needs and what role the carer and multidisciplinary team have in assisting the person. I will obtain my information from internet research and tutors notes and handouts. What is Dementia? Dementia is an umbrella term for a condition which causes damage to the brain cells and issues with the brain function.
According to Groome (1999), the causes of amnesia can be of two types which are the physical cause (organic amnesia) and psychological cause (psychogenic amnesia). Organic Amnesia occurs when there are physical damages or injuries to the brain. Some examples of organic amnesia includes Alzheimer disease, Korsakoff’s syndrome (Korsakoff’s amnesia), Herpes Simplex Encephalitis (HSE), temporal lobe surgery, Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and other injuries affecting the brain such as stroke, Huntington disease and Parkinson’s disease (Groome, 1999). Whereas Psychogenic Amnesia is related to psychological aspects such as one’s forgetting of self-identity following from a trauma or tragic experiences. The triggers for physical cause of amnesia includes: • Stroke • Encephalitis • Coeliac disease • Oxygen deprivation like carbon monoxide poisoning • Some medications like sleeping pills • Brain tumor • Seizures Where the triggers for psychological cause of amnesia includes: • Victim of a violent crime • Victim of child abuse • Sexual abuse • Being involved in a natural disaster • Being present during a terrorist attack On the other hand, based on findings of Banich and Cohen (2003), they argue that the causes of amnesia are divided into two major types which is the injury to the
The motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease takes place by a death from dopamine-generating cells in the substantia nigra, a region of the midbrain; the cause of this cell death is unknown. Early in the course of the disease, the most noticeable symptoms are movement related, including shaking, stiffness, slowness of movement and diificulty with walking & bearing. Later, thinking and behavioral problems may arise, with dementia commonly in the advanced stages of the diseases, whereas depression is the most common psychiatric symptom. Other symptoms include sensory, sleep and emotional problem. Parkinson’s disease is more common in older people, with most causes taking place after the age of
This disease breaks down the coating of nerve fibers or axons, those are called Myelin Sheath. This disease also breaks down brain cells, which are imperative for everyday functioning and intelligence. Symptoms of this disease include, developmental mental delay, seizures, stiff limbs, Optic atrophy: wasting of a muscle of the eye, resulting in vision difficulties, deafness, irritability, spasms, and ataxia which is the
Along with this their movements slow down, and they might also lose their sense of smell. In some cases they might suffer from sleep disorders, depression, constipation. In later stages dementia, which, according to Google Definitions, is defined as a chronic or persistent disorder of the mental processes caused by brain disease or injury and marked by memory disorders, personality changes, and impaired reasoning. Dementia might occur as the disease spreads out to involve other nerve cells. To this day scientists still don’t know for sure what causes Parkinson’s disease.
Leukoaraiosis, viewed as cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or low attenuation on computed tomographic scanning (CT), is common in patients with dementia. They have found a failure of elimination of interstitial fluid (ISF) from white matter, particularly connected with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Pathological studies and discovery of expanded perivascular spaces (PVS) by MRI in the white matter. Whereas, failure of eradication of ISF from the aging brain specifies failure in the disposal of soluble metabolites from the brain, where consequently there is a failure of homeostasis of the neuronal setting with significant consequences for the pathogenesis of dementia (Weller et al.,
These type of dementia occurs about; this occurs due to the short-term memory loss. The other problem will be visual-spatial areas, reasoning, judgement and insight. Hippocampus is the region where it gets affected by Alzheimer’s disease, not only that there will be
Qualitatively, this disease can be seen with senile plaques on the brain, and neurofibrillary tangles that affect physical changes to the brain. Since there are so many branches of dementia, it can be hard to determine which type of dementia a patient is experiencing, needing to be looked at more closely. Some warning signs of this disease include getting lost, paying for bills and trouble managing money, retelling the same stories, repeatedly asking the same questions, and losing/ misplacing items, but not being able to recall how to find them (532). Though not all people progress through this disease at the same pace and times in their lives, these are just some of the few symptoms and abnormalities that those who have Alzheimer’s can display as opposed to someone their age with a normal functioning brain and having no dementia. Quantitatively, research has shown that Alzheimer’s disease accounts for 50-70% of all neurocognitive disorders (531).