Such as, the S-linalool terpenoids , limonene, valencene and β-pinene are key aroma compounds of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa), and citrus (Citrus sp. ).Volatile terpenoid compounds, potentially derived from carotenoid, are main components of aroma and flavor in many fruits. Of particular interest are a group of terpenoid flavor volatile compounds generally present at relatively low levels but possessing strong effects on the overall human approval. These are, geranylacetone,β-ionon ,pseudoionone, β-cyclocitral,theaspirone,αdamascenone , geranial and β-damascenone. Their structures expose an isoprenoid-base origin, and they were long assumed to be the products of the
This work firstly aimed to study the major and minor phytonutrient components of the Egyptian monovarietal Coratina olive oil (CEVOO). Secondly, detect the adulteration of CEVOO with cheaper vegetable oils (soybean and sunflower). It was planned to prepare the simulated adulterated CEVOO with soybean or sunflower oil, at levels of 5, 10 and 20, % w/w. These models were analyzed for profiles of tocopherols, phytosterols and phytostanols as well as fatty acid composition using HPLC and GLC respectively which can help to detect precisely olive oil
Even with just a small market share rapeseed oil, crambe oil, palm oil, castor oil, lard and marine oils found specific applications in certain lubrication areas. But the development of lubricants from vegetable oils slowed because of e conomic and performance factors. Only a few oils, such as rapeseed and high-oleic oil, were used as base oils for lubricant until the early 1990s (Basu, Robley, Norris 1994). The lack of extensive use of plant based oil although it has the added advantage of being non-toxic, is largely due to the poor performance characteristics of the oil. Research has found that most of this plant based oils are unstable at higher temperatures.
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1Overview Vegetable oils have been previously used as lubricants since times immemorial but their fame as lubricants declined with advent of petroleum base lubricants by Goyan et al (1998).The use of vegetable oils and their esters however continued as lubricants in applications like rolling, cutting, drawing and quenching operations either alone or in combination with mineral oils because of their superior lubricity and higher specific heat by K Nishizawa (1976), HA Smith and R M Mcgill (1957), R K Brandth R F Morton (1978). The esters of dibasic, such as sebacic, palargaonic and azelaic with mono, di and polyhydric, such as 2-ethylhexanol,(C9-C14) oxo alcohols, polyglycols, pentaerythritol and neopentyl alcohol
It has the ability to withstand environmental stress, reproduce easily and grow at a faster rate with high market value as well (El-Sayeed, 2006). Their ability to feed on varieties of food ranging from zooplankton to fish food (Olaosebikan & Raji, 1998), lead to efficient utilization of vegetable oil (Sala & Balesteros, 1997). O. niloticus has been cultured successfully on series of alternative lipids and blends with FO at various levels, including soybean oil, crude palm oil, crude palm kernel, sunflower oil, palm fatty acid distillates, linseed and many others (Gabber, 1996; Ng et al., 2001; Kaushik, 2004; Ng, 2004; Ng et al., 2004). The choice of lipid for feed formulation have also been influenced by other factors such as diseases and resistance (health) of the fish and for consumer health (Ballestrazzi et al., 2006; Ng et al., 2009). However, numerous novels on lipid have become widely available both in mammals and some fish species on disease and resistance (Azad et al., 2001; Al-harbi & Uddin, 2004; Cai et al., 2004) on effects of vegetable oils on plasma metabolites and hematocrits; few have been evaluated in the context of coconut oil replacement of FO in O. niloticus diet (Nordrum et al., 2003; Mohamed et al., 2002; Nagao & Yanagita, 2010; Williams et al., 2006; Allan et al., 2001) and has shown the association between growth performance, body composition and coconut oil levels.
Usually many oils can be used for frying, e.g., palm oil, corn oil, cotton oil, soya oil, canola oil, sesame oil, and sunflower oil (Valenzuela et al., 2003). Several different oils are usually blended to get a healthy oil mixture. Therefore, the formulation should be low in its content of linoleic and linolenic acids, whereas it should contain a high level of natural antioxidants to be stable in the heating process. Effect of frying process on fatty acid composition and iodine value of selected vegetable oils and their
Medium and long-chain fatty acids, mainly 18:0 is desaturated in mammary gland forming monosaturated acids. Triacylglycerols ( TAG’s) : Triacylglycerols (TAG’s) are synthesized from more than 400 different fatty acids which makes milk fat the most complex (Parodi, 2004). Many acids are present in trace quantities and only 16 acids are present at 1% or higher depending on genetic factors, stage of lactation, dietary fats and seasonal and regional effects. Triacylglycerol with positions are visualized below (Christie,
2.1 EXCELLENT LUBRICITY Vegetable oils are divided into two broad chemical categories which are triesters and monoesters (Biresaw et al., 2003). However, most of the properties of vegetable oils such as corn, soyabean, canola, sunflower, and peanut oil are triesters that consist triglycerides. Triglycerides are esters of glycerol molecules with
The fatty acid composition of the yolk depends on the amount of fatty acids ingested by hen during its intake of food. For a standardized fed hen, saturated fatty acids (SFA) accounts for 35%, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) for 40-45%, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) for 20-25%, the most prevalent fatty acids in egg yolk are Palmitic acid (C16:0), Stearic acid (C18:0), Myristic acid (C14), Palmitoleic acid (C16:1), Oleic acid (C18:1), Linoleic acid (C18:2), Linolenic acid (C18:3), Arachidonic acid (C20:4), Docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6) . Thus, lipids are predominant in the hen egg yolk; therefore PVC/DOA/yolk membrane can be treated and analyzed in the same way as done by Oohira and Toko  for their PVC/DOPP/lipid membrane. Most of the above mentioned fatty acids are incorporated in the fabrication of taste sensors by Toko et al  and Iiyama et al  and proved that these lipids has the ability to transduce taste. These lipids were used by them in discrete form, whereas in the present work, they appear to be available naturally in hybrid
(2003) reported that there was small differences in the contents of iron, antimony and chromium between flour (extraction rate 55%) and bran fractions whereas mostly concentrated amount of trace elements were present in bran of both the species of buckwheat (F.esculentum and F.tataricum). Thakur (2007) evaluated biochemical properties of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum gaertn) genotypes and also studied the effect of heat treatment on prominent biochemical attributes of buckwheat. The study showed that genotypes namely Sangla-B-214, VL-27, Sangla-B-1,31B-208 and B-201, emerged overall nutritionally superior and multipurpose genotype in order of excellence. Jubete et al. (2009) studied that vitamin E composition differed significantly from grain type to grain type, and highest vitamin E content (expressed as α-tocopherol equivalents) was found in quinoa grains, followed by amaranth and buckwheat (24.7, 15.4, and 6.3 μg/g respectively).