History Of Liquid Chromatography

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Liquid chromatography is first being discovered by a Russian botanist, Mikhail Tsvet. Tsvet had rose the idea of liquid chromatography when he tried to purify and separate the coloured plant pigments by using a liquid-adsorption column containing calcium carbonate in 1890s. He also applied his observations with filter paper extraction to the new techniques for analysis the components in the petroleum. The filter paper extraction is the precursor of paper chromatography. He also found that the polarities of the solvents were important when during the separation to ensure that the solutes which were non-polar and polar can be separated efficiently. HPLC is the acronym of High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The creation of HPLC is actually…show more content…
But it was formerly known as High Pressure Liquid Chromatography. HPLC is an instrumental system to perform the technique of analytic chemistry to separate the chemical or biological compounds which are non-volatile and thermally-unstable such as pharmaceutical products, organic compounds, food and beverages, natural products and others. HPLC can be used in many fields. As examples, HPLC can be used in medical field to detect the concentration of antibiotics or vitamins levels in blood serum. HPLC also make its contribution to pharmaceutical manufacturer. Pharmaceutical manufacturer used the technique of separation by using HPLC to control the quality and dosage of drugs. HPLC also used in legal usage. The concentration of drugs in urine can be analysed by using HPLC to found out the drug abuser. HPLC also helps in the environmental application. HPLC is used for detecting the concentration of pesticides in the soil and also monitoring the particles in air and water pollutants which may threaten the living…show more content…
But due to the rate of separation by using liquid chromatography is slow and not much of efficiency since it was largely diffusion-controlled. HPLC was introduced by creating a condition under a high pressure of 400 atm. So HPLC can be also explained as it was improved from liquid chromatography. The solvent is allowed to be trickled via HPLC column with the help of gravitational force. The mobile phase and stationary phase in the HPLC will involve in the mechanism. The stationary phase in HPLC normally will be the silica gel. The silica gel will help to separate the components in the liquid sample as its particle size, surface properties and pore structure will lead to good separation results of solvent by minimize the length of diffusion path. The silica gel is also inert to most solvent so it can separate various type of chemical compound with high reproducibility. During the separation, the component in sample will interact with the adsorbent material within the pores of the stationary phase. This will cause the different flow rates for the different components and leading to the separation of the components as they released from the column. The HPLC is worked basically on the high pressure pump. The separation of HPLC can be based on the polarity, electrical charges and the molecular size. But it is more highly based on the polarity of the compound. The molecules which have the

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