Many concerns have centered in on the possible links between repeated concussions and chronic traumatic encephalopathy or CPE. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a serious, degenerative brain disease that affects a person’s ability to think. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy involves the progressive brain damage, particularly in the frontal region of the brain, which controls many functions including people’s judgement, emotion, impulsive control, social behavior and their memory. A signature feature of the disease is abnormal deposits of a protein called tau that accumulates around small blood vessels in brain crevices. Researchers believe that multiple blows to the head may dislodge the tau protein from the cell structure and cause it to form in clumps inside nerve cells.
Closed head injuries are a type of traumatic brain injury in which the skull and dura mater remain intact. Closed head injuries are the main leading causes of death in children under 4 years old and the most common cause of physical disability and cognitive impairment in young people. Closed head injuries and other forms of mild traumatic brain injury are about 75% of the estimated 1.7 million brain injuries that occur annually in the United States. Closed head injuries may result in physical, cognitive, or psychological impairment. Closed-head injuries are caused mostly by car accidents, falls, acts of violence, and sports injuries.
(2004), Vigué et al. (2011)]. As the physiologic mechanisms against ischemia in cerebral tissue are impaired, the traumatized brain become highly vulnerable to ischemic injuries, these ischemic injuries, even for a few minutes, have a dramatic negative impact on long-term outcomes. Thus, prediction of outcomes is urgently needed. The primary aim of managing patients with acute brain injury is to minimize secondary injury by maintaining cerebral perfusion and oxygenation.
Cerebral edema is a life threatening homeostatic imbalance that may be caused by many things and can be treated if the diagnosis, recognition and management is timely. (ScienceDirect: Cerebral Edema) There are three categories of cerebral edema: vasogenic, cytotoxic and interstitial. Vasogenic edema happens when there is increased permeability of the blood brain barrier. Some of the most common vasogenic causes of edema include: brain tumors/abscesses, lead toxicity, stroke, diabetic ketoacidosis and hypercapnia. Cytotoxic edema is most commonly characterized by the swelling of neurons, glia and constriction of extracellular space.
This represents that spinal stenosis accounts to be a major health issue in the United States. About 1 in 1000 of the population in the age group older to 65 years suffers from this condition. It is more prevalent in the older age group. Of these, there are about 35% patients who are asymptomatic. Lower lumbar spine is more prone to forminal stenosis as the diameter of the dorsal root ganglion is larger than that of the foramen.
In Brian W. Benson’s article, he states, “Concussion results in a graded set of clinical symptoms that may or may not involve loss of consciousness or memory dysfunction.” Major injuries are always an issue when it comes to contact sports among all ages. Due to this, changes have been made to the physical rules of the game. For example, in all levels, there is now a penalty for head contact. Hockey is a fast-paced game and it can be difficult to perform a clean body check. Therefore, this new penalty has been issued so players can do whatever they can to avoid the head.
This results in the damage of brain cells and including the cells beyond the spill which then, aren’t able receive enough blood. Common causes of this type of hemorrhage are hypertension, trauma, and the use of blood thinners. Subarachnoid hemorrhage occurs when an artery within the surface of the brain bursts and spills in the space between the surface of the brain and skull. The leakage is most commonly caused by an aneurysm. A transient ischemic attack is also known as TIA or “mini stroke”.
Multiple concussions and swelling can cause progressive cognitive decline which is like dementia (Brain Facts). According to author, Lauren Tarshis, “Some symptoms of a concussion are immediate, like loss of consciousness. But often signs are more subtle and don't show up until hours or days after the injury which can be forgetfulness, confusion, headaches, balance problems or dizziness, light or noise sensitivity, sluggishness or fogginess, irritability or emotional symptoms, concentration or memory problems and blurred vision.” So if an athlete was to get a concussion they might not even know right away and put themselves at risk by continuing to play. As seen with Zack, second impact syndrome could be fatal and ruin your life. Concussions are not rare either.
THE INCREASING NUMBER OF CONCUSSION IN ATHLETES ARE DETRIMENTAL TO THE FUTURE OF SPORTS In the recent years, concussions have become a common accident related to various types of sports around the globe. A concussion is a traumatic injury of the brain, they can also be as a result of a sudden blow on the body. Such a blow may cause the head to jerk back and forth in a rapid motion. This may cause a bounce or twist within the skull, which may over stretch the brain, cause cell damage and alter chemical functioning within the brain. The occurrence of such changes within the brain leads it to vulnerability to injury and increased sensitivity.
The characteristics of this group include a greater occurrence of addictions, mental illness and disability, including brain injury and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). The younger population aged 16 to 24 makes up about 20% of the homeless, and women account for only 26.2% (The Homeless Hub).
While, the medium house household was about $41,000 majority of teens who excessively drank was above the poverty level. In addition, $750 million in hospitalization each year and over 1 billion U.S dollars in accident related alcohol use. To put things in perspective 1 out of every 4 underage drinker has a DUI and whites have a much higher rate of accident related fatalities than hispanic and blacks. $505 million have been the result of assault regarding underage drinking and of that amount $416 million were due to domestic violence. However, majority of the $200 billion in underage drinking stems from loss of work or school
Malignant Melanoma occurs, in varying percentages, to every people, in every area of the world. Among dark-skinned ethnic groups, the incidence is roughly 1 per 100,000 per year. For light-skinned races, the incidence is much, much higher. Some areas of the world report melanoma rates as high as 50 per 100,000. More frightening is the reported increase of malignant melanoma in whites which is estimated between 3 and 7% annually.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a multi-faceted injury and is considered the leading cause of ailment in soldiers and pedestrians. During injury, a surge in ROS facilitates a vicious cycle that accelerates mitochondrial damage, excitotoxicity, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation. Further, mitochondrial targeting strategies in TBI have been increasingly studied as their maintenance will potentially preserve brain function. Melatonin is one such mitochondrial targeted strategy. Melatonin is synthesized naturally with in the body.
There are approximately 350 million individuals living with DM worldwide. In the United States, the rate of T2DM has increased in individuals of AA descent with the prevalence rate escalating in the past 30 years and has quadrupled. AAs above 20 years of age are 1.7 times more likely to be diagnosed with DM than the Caucasians. They accounted for 10.8% of all individual with diabetes (CDC, 2015). A comparison of rates of diagnosis of diabetes mellitus by ethnicity and race disclosed that in 2010 the AAs diagnosed for diabetes were 13.2% of 29.1 million Americans (ADA, 2014).
Common findings are neurodefecits in the central nervous system (CNS) such as chronic neurologic demyelination and inflammation of the CNS, lesions found in the neural space of the person, and an inappropriate immune response (Borazanci et al. 2009). Loss of myelin in the CNS leads to inappropriate action potential activation in which the axons of the neurons become inflamed over time and potentially lead to axon damage and/or loss (Nickerson 2013). Nickerson 2013 also stated that this long term inflammation could be contributing to the long term disabilities associated with MS. Loss of myelin in the axons of neurologic cells lead to many things; one being the formation of astrocytic scarring forming on the myelin sheaths (Newlan et