Essay 79: Mitochondria Mitochondria are organelles found exclusively in eukaryotic cells, meaning protozoa, fungi, plants, and animals. The term 'mitochondrion' is derived from a Greek word meaning thread. This accurately describes their appearance in the light microscope, as barely visible thread like structures. Following the invention of the electron microscope, scientists learned that mitochondria have a complex structure that allows them to harness metabolic energy in a useful form. As an aside, prokaryotic cells (eubacteria, blue-green algae, and archebacteria) lack mitochondria but maintain a strong evolutionary kinship with them.
It is very easy and simple to conduct an experiment on C. elegans that’s why the majority of laboratories use this organism. The reason for using the C. elegans in an experiment and in research’s is because they are harmless it humans they are non-parasitic. C. elegans grows on. E. coli which can be easily found in rotten fruit or vegetables. This organism is very small and can be handled easily the adult C. elegans is about 1mm in length, C. elegans have
The experiment was designed to alter the amount of exercise a betta splenden was given to observe any changes in mitochondrial content. By conducting this experiment, tissue samples were obtained and observed closely for mitochondrial content. Upon observation, mitochondria were not visible and the closest magnification only provided for a clear image of the tissue cells. The theory was modified to observe the effect of exercise on the cell continuity of betta splendens. A Likert’s scale would be used to quantify the results.
A peroxidase is an enzyme that acts as catalysts, which occurs in biological systems. Peroxidase is found in plants, which they play a role in helping to minimize damage caused by stress factors or insect pests. Along with being found in plants, they are also present in liver cells, kidney cells, leukocytes and erythrocytes. For the concentration of enzyme experiment, the hypothesis was if the concentration of an enzyme increases, then the enzyme activity will increase as well. The hypothesis was proven to be true, because there are more enzymes to react with substrates.
tested the cytotoxic potential of mammalian DNase-I and its possible use in tumour-targeting strategies for cancer therapy. They designed the anti-PLAP scFv-DNase-I chimera, which was highly cytotoxic in vitro in cells expressing the PLAP antigen. Then, in 2003, Ben-Yehudah et al. constructed and characterized a new chimeric protein, GnRH-DFF40, consisting of caspase-activated DNase. This protein construct exhibited the DNase I activity and was able to target and kill adenocarcinoma cells228.
The Austrian chemist, Erwin Chargaff established the paper chromatography of nucleic acids, using this to determine how much of each of the component nucleotides was contained in a DNA sample. He rapidly demolished Levene's tetranucleotide hypothesis. Each species differed in the amount of A, C, G and T - but within the species, the proportions of each are identical, no matter which tissue the DNA is extracted from. It was just what might be expected for a molecule that is the biological signature for the
However, they are non-functional, which explains why they are considered as relatives of functional genes. They arise from duplication or retrotransportation. Pseudogenes are critical to determining the historical evolution of genomic genes (Galluzzi 126). Ordinarily, they are identified with the aid of alignment programs such as FASTA. Tandemly repeated genes refers to a group of genes that are formed due to tandem duplication.
The dispersion of mitochondria in the cell soma is aided by microtubule filaments, which when combined with an actin cytoskeleton, help to divide the chromosomes during cell division; however the segregation of mitochondrial chromosomes is not directly linked to cell division and can occur on its own. Mitochondria have their own genome and maternal mode of transmission or germline. They are also needed for additional functions such as regulating mitochondrial segregation to protect the organelles and to prevent and minimize defects such as the growth of pathogenic mutations that can cause disease. These diseases are known as mitochondrial encephalomyopathies and vary greatly - from neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's to metabolic diseases including cancer, and encephalopathy (brain disease) in infants. The vast array of diseases that can be caused have many differing phenotypes and outcomes, and are largely concentrated to areas that require a high level of energy (metabolic activity).
Animal cell have centrioles present, which help in pulling the chromosomes to the opposite poles, while plant cell do not have centrioles present. In animal cell, a number of hormones induce cell division, while in plant cell, cell division is induced by a specific plant hormone called cytokine. Centrosome is essential for mitosis in animal cells but not for plant cells. Prior to cell division, animal cell will become rounded shape but plant cell do not change
However, the development of the disease is based on specific (immunity) and non-specific (enzymes, genetic factors) responses. There are few limitations to epidemiology studies such as bias in the data and confounding in exposure. In this experiment, a model of transmission of disease was set up as well as organism causing the disease was determined. In addition, the origin and pathway of the disease were also identified. All the materials and methods follows as per practical manual page 15 to 16 (BTH 3722, Class notes
The other gene codes for resistance in tetracycline and is expressed in aerobically grpwn E. coli, but not in anaerobically grpwn E. coli or in bacteroides. The transposon of Tn4351 was originally detected in E. coli which carried an unstable chimeric plasmid, pSS-2. The mobilization of pSS-2 from onestrain of E. coli
Gene Mapping of Fungus Sordaria fimicola Using Tetrad Analysis Devan Endejan Biology 220 October 30, 2015 INTRODUCTION This lab is used to exhibit gene linkage and mapping with tetrad analysis. Gene mapping is when a method is used to determine how close two genes are, the closer the genes are the more likely those genes are inherited together. For the lab we used a fungus Sordaria fimicola, because this particular fungus produces spores that can be easily observed with tetrad analysis. Tetrad analysis is a method used for fungi to show linked relationships by evaluating the products from meiotic division. The asci of S. fimicola stay complete with tetrad analysis which makes the spores easily observed for genetic cross-over.
For all of this to work and be worth your time and effort the feedback must be precise. The more precise the faster and greater the improvement you will see. The most common instrument you see used for biofeedback is an EMG. This instrument gives the electrical activity of the muscle. It is important to use biofeedback because everything we do involves coordination and complex motions and when you look at individual muscles you are able to figure out the exact problem in that complex motion.
Unknown #10 produced no identifiable macroscopic characteristics as a broth, so the first step was to Gram stain a loopful to determine the microscopic characteristics. Gram staining not only helped identify Unknown #10’s microscopic morphology but it also helped ensure the specimen was a pure culture—no other bacteria were visible when Unknown #10 was Gram stained and observed under the microscope. Unknown #10’s key microscopic morphology was that it was a very small, Gram negative bacillus. Though bacilli can possibly form endospores, no empty white centers were visible which suggested that Unknown #10 was not an endospore forming bacteria. No quick endospore stain was performed to validate this assumption since only one assigned organism was endospore forming and unlike Unknown #10, that organism was Gram positive.