In two ways DNA binding protein can interact with the target DNA. It can bind to the target DNA in a sequence specific manner, where the DNA binding domain can recognize and bind to a specific sequence of the DNA, which is called recognition sequence. This type of interaction is call 'sequence specific DNA-protein interaction'. Sometimes the DNA binding domain can randomly bind to a double stranded as well as a single stranded DNA. It is called 'sequence non-specific DNA-protein interaction'.
Meiosis, on the other hand, is used for just one purpose in the human body: the production of gametes—sex cells, or sperm and eggs. It makes daughter cells with exactly half as many chromosomes. Meiosis in humans is a division process that makes a diploid cell (one with two sets of chromosomes) to haploid cells (ones with a single set of chromosomes). PHASES OF MEIOSIS
The nucleus gives the command to either grow, divide or reproduce and has a membrane of its own, the nuclear membrane. Ribosomes: Ribosomes are made of two different parts, the small and large ribosomal subunits. These two subunits are manufactured in the core of the cell, the nucleolus. Once the two parts locate each other they form a complete ribosome. This final ribosome product is capable of turning genetic code found in
How do this modifications affect the genes? It all start when the genes carry the blueprints to make proteins in the cell. The DNA sequence of a gene is transcribed into RNA, which is then translated into the sequence of a protein. Because they change how genes can interact with the cell 's transcribing machinery, epigenetic modifications, generally turn genes on or off, allowing or preventing the gene from being used to make a protein. On the other hand, mutations and bigger changes in the DNA sequence like deletions change not only the sequence of the DNA and RNA, but may affect the sequence of the protein as well.
Mechanism of meiotic recombination The Meiotic recombination is an integral part of the meiotic division in most eukaryotes. It can lead to either crossovers (reciprocal exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes), or non-crossovers (non-reciprocal exchange of the genetic material). In eukaryotes, only a small percentage of meiotic DSBs result in crossover products (Sung et al., 2003; Youds and Boulton, 2011). In contrast, repair of DSBs in the mitotic cells happen mostly through the non-crossover recombination pathway, via the sister chromatids.
During the first cycle of replication in meiosis, Prophase is the same but crossing over occurs along side of the nuclear membrane dissolving, chromosomes developing, and the spindle fibers forming. Crossing over is the process in which homologous chromosomes from both parents pair up and exchange DNA. Also during metaphase and anaphase homologous chromosomes are separated and pulled to opposite sides. During this second cycle of replication the cells grows through Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II, Telophase II, and its final cycle of cytokinesis which is the exact same as during mitosis. I will play a quick review of this process.
There are three different types of artificial cloning: gene cloning, reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning. (Fact) Gene cloning produces copies of genes or segments of DNA. Reproductive cloning produces copies of whole animals. Therapeutic cloning produces embryonic stem cells for experiments aimed at creating tissues
Student ID = mc170404399 ASSIGNMENT NO : 2 Q 1 . Differentiate between somatic and germline mutations ? Give at least two examples of each. In biology, a mutation is the lasting modification of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Meiosis is the procedure of two genes which originate from a mother and a father and the characteristics from the mother and father will be passed down to their offspring. The children will originate from both parents versus one parent; this procedure is called sexual multiplication. As indicated by Simon (2013) "every children of sexual multiplication acquires a one of a kind blend of qualities from its two parents, and this consolidated arrangement of genes projects a one of a kind mix of attributes. Accordingly, sexual proliferation can deliver gigantic assortment among offspring.
Structure of chromosome observed under a light microscope shows two chromatids connected at a point: the centromere. Chromatids are simply the condensed form of chromatin. Chromatids separate during anaphase stage of mitosis and meiosis II to form the genetic material of separate cells. The chromonemata are the portions of the chromosome that contain genes that code for protein synthesis. Also known as the primary constriction or the kinetochore, the centromere is the region of the chromosome that is attached to the spindle fibres during mitosis or meiosis.