Essay On The Importance Of Hygiene

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Hippocrates summed it up by saying “… not to reduce it is ti incur the reproach of ignorance; to reduce it is to increase the chances of death.” Papyrus Smith, Egypt, 1800BC “Whenever there is a gaping wound, such as that inflicted by the mouth of a crocodile it should be covered with meat” Amboise pare’ (father of French surgery) in 1545 “ the ski must forthwith be enlarged so that there may be free passage for both for pus or matter as also for other things the wound may contain. If there be any strange bodies as pieces of wood, iron, bones, bruised flesh, congealed blood, or the like, whether they come from without or within the body, he must take them away for otherwise there is no union to be expected.” Before
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Josep Trueta)
Even 3 decades ago, the treatment of an open fracture, or a fracture with severe soft tissue injury, represented a severe threat to the affected limb and the amputation rate was 15%. At that time, soft tissue management consisted of wet to dry dressings, which represented the only solution to cover open soft tissues. These dressings were associated with a high rate of infection, and the presence of open bone was the most severe threat to orthopedic surgeons. Another severe problem, especially in large wounds, was the loss of fluid through evaporation. This necessitated frequent changes or dressing which were painful procedures for the patient.
History of external fixator goes back to the ancient time when Hippocrates in about 400 BC wrote about simple external fixator. He described a form of external fixator to a splint a fracture of tibia with a device consisting of closely fitting proximal and distal Egyptian leather rings connecting by four wooden rods.
In 1840, Malgaigen first use percutaneous metal pins to fix the shaft tibia fractures.
In 1897, the first modern external fixator was developed by Clatyton Parkhil of Denver.
In the early 20th century, a Belgian surgeon, Lambotte, design the external fixator that allows placement of pins in any direction with adjustable

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