Another type of feedback is indirect feedback. It is a strategy of providing feedback commonly used by teachers to help students correct their errors by giving indication that an error exists without providing the correct form (Ferris & Roberts, 2001). When is indirect feedback used? When teachers only indicate in some way to make students aware that there is an existent error in their writing and do not provide the students with the correction. In doing so, teachers give some suggestions by providing general clues regarding the location and nature or type of an error such as an underline, a circle, a code, a mark, or a highlight on the error, and ask the students to correct the error themselves (Lee, 2008; O’Sullivan & Chambers, 2006).
B) Explicit vs. implicit correction In explicit correction the student is provided with the correct form or a suggestion what the error is, whereas implicit treatment of errors aims at actively involving the learners in the process of identifying and correcting their own errors. Implicit corrective practices in written communication involve, simple underlining, marginal description, encircling, writing comments on the margins (Hashimoto, 2004 and Corpuz 2011), after which students have to locate and correct errors themselves (Hadla, 2006), or the use of correction codes. The technique of Error Correction Code involves underlining the mistakes and providing a correction code that includes symbols and abbreviations to indicate the nature of the error, for instance, ‘the teacher may use the symbol “Sp” to refer to “wrong spelling”, “WW” for “wrong word” (Wang, 2010:194) or the symbol // to indicate that a new line or paragraph is needed. The Error Correction Code has a double focus: to inform the L2 student that an error has been made and inform on the kind of error made (Hendrickson, 1984). Implicit correction practices also involve writing down the errors to be corrected later on and/or providing oral feedback in oral communication activities.
Teaching assistant talks through the process step-by-step to show the children how things are done, for example, how to make, confirm or change predictions. Teaching assistant can model re-reading of the text if the meaning is unclear and can model working out a difficult word. Writing can be modelled by using the whiteboard. Teaching assistant can model how to use strategies to help reading and writing. Through the modelling process the children should get confident enough to talk, think, share and reflect; they should want to be let free to do their
Findings revealed that though students valued feedback, there’s room for improvement in the helpfulness of remarks. Additionally, four reoccurring disadvantageous comments were recognized. This includes comments that are ill-defined, in need of direction, focused solely on inferior components, and/or had no reference to assessment criteria. Various Improvement seems to be needed to ameliorate student’s perception of
Principal office Win-Win Discipline A discipline model created by Dr.Spencer Kagan. This discipline model focuses on handling "discipline problems at the moment of the disruption" (Kagan, 2002). There are a variety of reasons why a student misbehaves, "win-win discipline provides a teacher with different strategies to respond to the different students positions" (Kagan, 2002).T " I want teachers to learn that they have to take charge, explain their expectations, be positive with students, and consistently employ both positive reinforcement and negative consequences. These are the skills that form the basis of Assertive Discipline and of any effective program of classroom management" (Canter, n.d.). Example 2: Procedure When a student enters a classroom... Hi Amy, that was a great game y 'all played last night.
In addition, as cited in Wragg and Brown’s book (2001), Turney et al (1973) lists twelve function of questioning but the most common ones are to check knowledge and understanding, to diagnosing students difficulties, and to recall of facts. Teachers’ questions are important to help students in learning process. Thus, teacher cannot just ask random question or any question. In order to help students through questioning, it is important for teachers to use question effectively. “One obvious purpose of effective questioning is to minimize teachers’ and students’ errors by focusing on a particular fact, issue, skill, belief, or whatever” ( Wragg & Brown, 2001, p.27).
It is important to perform multiple assessments for students and track their improvement for concepts they are struggling with to see whether changes in how the information is being relayed need to be made or whether the student needs additional instruction outside of the regular class meeting time. The data collected in the response to intervention process is extremely important because rather than saying this student improved or this student still needs work on certain concepts, it can show you exactly which students are struggling and to what degree, and then it will help teachers within their intervention plan to assess whether the percentage of understanding for the student goes up or down throughout the assessment period. Having hard numbers to relate back to especially over a longer period of time is more effective in helping the teachers modify or adjust the plan to help the students show growth in their
More specifically, they argue that instruction and assessment could be enhanced by further clarifying learning objectives along a knowledge dimension. Using appropriate terminology, respond to the following prompts: • What are the deficiencies of a one-dimensional taxonomy of educational objectives, per the readings and classroom discussion? • What are the subtle and overt characteristics that differentiate the four knowledge domains? Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives was designed to classify learning objectives, in aims of facilitating the exchange of test items among professors to reduce the preparation time needed to prepare exams every semester. Additionally, the classification system created a common language about learning goals across subject matter and grade level.
It is a generic term which disguises multiple purposes which are often not explicitly acknowledged. Feedback as a strong external stimulus providing positive or negative reinforcement to behavior. Correction is a key component of the traditional definition of feedback where the role of feedback is to ‘put things right’ by taking a corrective action. Feedback must include identification of errors or misunderstanding, but highlights the role of diagnosing problems with the feedback analysis. This links with the benchmarking role where feedback identifies a gap between what is understood/has been demonstrated and the standard of performance expected.
One reason for inadequate bilingual teacher preparation is the fact that some teachers use the transmission as part of their teaching-learning process instead of applying correctly the bilingual program that the school has. The transmission model of teaching has been used in traditional schooling it aims to view students as empty vessels that the teacher must “fill” with knowledge. This teaching style defines knowledge as “a collection of facts, concepts, principles, and theories that were discovered by experts in the different academic disciplines and packaged into the formal curriculum” (Villegas & Lucas, p.