Dementia Outline

1251 Words6 Pages
Topic: Dementia
Written By: Roxanne Lim, Panchami Chandukudlu, Aditi, Jenny Sui Yuan

Abstract:

1. Brief Outline

Dementia, commonly referred to as senility, constitutes a vast branch of neurodegenerative disorders that affect the cognitive well being of an individual’s ability to think, remember and act. More commonly addressed in its chronic form, dementia is associated with a range of diseases such as Alzheimer's Disease, the most common form of dementia (making up to 70% of cases), Parkinson’s Disease, vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and frontotemporal dementia.

2. Causes There are four reversible causes of dementia- hypothyroidism, vitamin B12 deficiency, Lyme disease, and neurosyphilis.

Other causes
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The brain requires high amounts of energy employed by neurons to stimulate ionic pumps and maintain synaptic activity. Thus, a heavily modulated blood flow to the brain is quintessential to sustain neurons and glial cells in the brain.

A build up of vascular injuries can instigate progressive dementia but singular injuries in an areas critical for cognition like the Hippocampus and Thalamus may also cause
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Signs and Symptoms

Symptoms experienced by patients clinically diagnosed with dementia include drastic mood and personality changes, problems with language, decrease in motivation and forgetfulness. There is a gradual decline in cognitive abilities and memory, impairing day to day living.

3.1 Physiological Symptoms

Physiological symptoms include body tremors, balance problems, memory distortions, trouble eating or swallowing, among other key signs. In the initial stages of dementia- mild cognitive impairment, the signs and symptoms of the disorder are tenuous. Symptoms during this stage include memory difficulty such as anomia and problems with executive functions.

4. Diagnosis

Diagnosis of dementia is based upon history of the illness and follows with a few cognitive tests, the most basic being the abbreviated mental test score (AMTS), a 10 question cognitive questionnaire including questions like “what is the date of your birth” or tasks to complete like counting backwards from 20. Further tests and analysis include conducting MRI scans, reflex tests or laboratory blood tests which help uncover any other health issues that could possibly be the cause of

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