Building on the previous point made about his perception of human passions being the main tool in the decision making process, Hobbes argues that individuals’ decision to enter society and ensure security is based on the ultimate aversion. It is more predominant than the ultimate appetite, so the fear of death is greater than the greed for power and a social contract is made where all men lose some of their individual power and submit their rights to the sovereign who therefore has the ultimate power in the society. This vast amount of power given to him by the people is very effective in making laws by which he doesn’t abide. In a society, everyone has to only obey and fear the sovereign now, which provides security to the people by protecting them from each other and creating a sense of trust among them. Since all decisions are made by one sovereign, this kind of structure enables immediate decision making and resembles an absolute monarchy, the most effective government regime according to
Western civilization came about after the blending and mixing of various cultures that spread from Ancient Greece and Rome throughout Europe and later on America. As Western Civilization spread, the areas that have been influenced by this is often called The West. As of today, Greek and Romans ideas of philosophy, literature, mathematics, astronomy and government are still present. The ideas of government that were developed by Greeks and Romans served as a basis for the United States’ government today. In the 400s B.C., Greece began to implement direct democracy and in 509 B.C., Romans developed representative government.
The term ‘democracy’ derives from the Greek word ‘Demokratia’, which is a compound word made by the Greek historian Herodotus when he combined the lexicons “demos” (common people) and ‘krátos’ (rule of strength). The term ‘Demokratia’ connotes two meanings: first, the people possess the authority. Second, the people exert the power. Etymologically considered, the democracy embraces both the political principle and form; it can be defined as the concept of the power of the people and of the public government. Lastly, the monarchy, aristocracy, and oligarchy reckon the concept confrontations with the democracy.
Correspondingly, all of these principles relied on the integrity of the concept that the Athenians revered the most: direct democracy. However, in practice, these ideologies commonly clashed and encroached upon each other. Phrynichus, a famous Athenian tragedian, felt this clash firsthand with this play The Capture of Miletus. Portraying the devastating conquest of the city of Miletus by the Persians1 , this play was received with much criticism and led to many calling for Phrynichus to be punished for the pain he inflicted upon those who witnessed the performances. Despite describing it as a tribute to the fallen,
The other kind of Love, “Common Aphrodite” is considered bad because it is driven by physical desires towards the body rather than mind, and as a consequence, they are attracted towards both men and women. The belief of two different Aphrodites was formed due to Hesiod and Homer’s writings. While Hesiod tells that Aphrodite is motherless, Homer states that she is the daughter of Zeus and Dione. Both Phaedrus and Pausanias link Eros to their Greek traditions and
The very fact that Aristotle and Plato saw mistakes in the societies, in which they lived, encouraged them to write their political philosophies. These philosophies provided the first written recognition of politics. Aristotle in his works “The Politics” states that "Man is by nature a political animal"(The Politics; Aristotle) in other words, it lies deep within the instinct of man. It is almost primal. Due to his nature man should study and realize his role within the "polis".
Political elements like oligarchy versus democracy molded Western Civilization's political science and political philosophies. An Overview of the Greek Geography as a Trigger of Western Civilization
Although mythological tales are viewed by many as fantasies, mythology is comprised of various versions of distorted stories that attempt to explain life 's mysteries, to describe the journeys of heroes in past generations, and to provide a unique identity to Greek culture. In Greek culture, the gods did not shape mankind in their own image, mankind shaped the gods in their image. The gods were created with human characteristics so that the Greeks would easily relate to the gods. The god, Apollo, was given his muscular aspect by the Greeks who watched strong athletes compete in the Olympics. To make Greek stories seem historical and realistic, heroes were given Greek birthplaces.
Aristoteles y Plato are two of the greatest philosophers in history. Plato was a teacher of Aristotle, so it is common that we find some similarities between them. Aristoteles does not agree with the political and social philosophy of Plato; but both have something in common, in his two books, Plato with “The Republic” and Aristoteles with “Politics”, both try to decipher what is "the ideal state". For Aristotle, man is a political animal that lives in a polis, or state. For man to develop and be happy, he has to live within a society that is governed by laws and regulations; for Aristotle this is a political life, and for him, Plato's theory regarding complete unity violates the nature of this political life.
Political theory is more concerned with contributions of various classical and contemporary thinkers and philosophers. Political science is systematically diverse and adopts many methods originating in social research. Approaches include positivism, rational choice theory, behaviouralism, structuralism, post-structuralism, realism, institutionalism, and pluralism. Political science, as one of the social sciences, uses methods and techniques that relate to the kinds of inquiries sought: primary sources such as historical documents and official records, secondary sources such as scholarly journal articles, survey research, statistical analysis, case studies, experimental research, and model building. The importance of political science lies in the fact that all of us live within political structures and we are affected by the alterations in the global political economy.