Gender roles in society are defined differently in many manifestations. For example, countries in the Middle East and Africa have male-only judicial branches while educational systems throughout the world are mostly made up of women. But how are these roles determined? It may be the location of a civilization or the traditions and religions that a group of people adhere to. In Igbo society, these roles are defined by both their culture and beliefs.
Structural effects are the conditions produced by society due to changes in spheres of history, politics, and the economy. Cultural effects are the result of the attitude and behavior of individuals toward reality, and include values. Often, they are responses to structural changes. The marriage gap between blacks and whites is due to both structural and cultural effects, but more so structural than cultural. Historically, for African Americans, the effects of slavery resulted in a “less instutionalized” (lecture) system of marriage, as women under slavery were not able to marry due to their restrictive conditions.
In Igbo culture it is acceptable to beat women and look down upon them? Women are below men in this culture and in the eyes of the Europeans that is wrong. In Things Fall Apart sexism is shown in many ways such as the abuse of women, social expectations and the power of males. But the Igbo culture views that as normal while the rest of the world despises the cultures way of treating women. Although Chinua Achebe’s novel Things Fall Apart shows traces of gender equality among the Igbo, the European audience views the culture as sexist.
Nature vs. Nurture Nurture dominates nature in determining gender roles One of the oldest arguments is the nature vs. nurture debate in determining gender roles. However, by now it has been established that both nature and nurture plays a role in determining gender roles. The question arises which one dominates the other. It is important to know the difference between the two terms Sex and Gender first. According to sexologists John Money and Anke Ehrhardt, sex and gender are separate categories.
Thomas Jefferson and Niccolo Machiavelli both believe that the actions of the people shape the characteristics of the ruler and define the type of authority that will be held towards the people. Machiavelli, the first great political philosopher of the Renaissance, argues all men are untrustworthy due to their selfish, self-interested and impulsive ways of life in his writing, The Morals of the Prince, and therefore, to keep the people under control the ruler must be prepared to be cruel and instill fear among the people. Opposing Machiavelli is Jefferson. In The Declaration of Independence Jefferson believes people can be trusted since they have the ability to make their own decisions. Whereas Machiavelli supports tyranny, Jefferson believes
Aaron Devor states in “Gender Roles Behaviors and Attitudes”, how the females are dependent and how the males are independent and much more aggressive. Devor even shows us how the gender stereotypes are divided among today’s society. There are many examples of gender stereotypes in Carter’s story that go hand in hand with Devor’s statements. In Carter’s texts, there are examples of how the males act in a feminine way and how the females act in a masculine way.
This is to say that Locke believed it was wrong for a nation to be ruled by one man based on his bloodline or privilege of class. Both of these arguments are basically over the idea of being born into privilege or into service. While one puts heavy emphasis on one man being inherently “good”, the other emphasizes our ability to have free will. Although Bossuet and Locke have their differences in what ruling a monarchy should look like, they still have some ideas that are represented in both of their theories. First, we must understand that while these two philosophers were on opposing spectrums of the political debate of the time, they both still had the nation's best interests at heart.
Our cultural beliefs dictate that there are only two biological sexes corresponding to two genders (Newman, 2001).The concept of being male and female often brings about misconceptions and stereotypes, such as the belief that males are expected to display competent and the dominant attitudes while females are expected to exhibit nurturing and emotional attitudes. Because of the way that society view women 's roles, it is evident that society cannot exist without clear cut categories of male and female. Anthropologist Margaret Mead believed that “culture is the key to gender distinctions” (Macionis ). And because of the role that culture plays within society, it can be determined that our past cultural beliefs has shaped the beliefs of many
Julie speaks about the origin of gender, the social construct of gender versus the biological aspect of gender. Julie states that gender is simply a classification of male and female. Gender roles assigned in order to justify or excuse work ability. For example, the assigned role of a female to give birth or for a male to work. There is a difference between sex and gender.
Gender consists of men as well as women. In various attempts to understand gender, the concept of sex roles was introduced; and sometimes men and women were treated as simple categories. The most suitable approach is to treat gender as a system of social relations (Connell). According to Raewyn Connell “[m]asculinities are the patterns of social practice associated with the position of men in any society’s set of gender relations”. Moreover, differences in bodily forms is not a firm determining factor of gender patterns; one could rather see it as a reference point in gender practices.