At some moment of soviet regime, when people were deported or resseteled, percentage of Kazakh nation was low. Russian was major population in this area; therefore Russian language was penetrated into the lives of Kazakhs. Also there were established Russian schools along with Kazakh schools. However these actions did not fully eliminate Kazakh language and kazakh culture, there were people in the region with relatively small percentage of russians, where kazakh people spoke in kazakh. Still people speak in Kazakh, preserving own culture.
Under the Constitution, the country is a democratic, secular, legal and social state whose highest values are an individual, his life, rights and freedoms. Kazakhstan gained independence 16 December 1991. Astana is the capital of Kazakhstan. Official language - Kazakh. Russian has the status of language of international communication.
For almost every Eastern European state that the Soviet Union took control of, it always began with the Communist Party sharing power in the government for one to two years. Soon afterwards, it enabled the Communist Party to quickly establish one-party Communist governments in these various Eastern European states. As a result, the Communist government was firmly established in East Germany,
As a result of this policy, the local intelligentsia and public started to demonstrate the discontents regarding the local conditions in the republics. Also, such discontents related to environmental and political situations were shown in Kazakhstan during this period. The main sources of social discontent in Kazakh SSR were the Aral Sea problem, the appointment of Gennady Kolbin to the post
Probably, they think in such way, because, for seventy years, , Kazakhstan was a part of the USSR. The Kazakh language in the Soviet era was in a very critical position. For instance, education, official writing, and employment required a fundamental knowledge of the Russian language. As for education, most schools used Russian. Kazakh schools were marginalized, therefore the Kazakh language was used only in the rural localities.
The Government of Kazakhstan has appointed many laws and initiated many political programs to encourage the development of Kazakh language and to enhance interest to learn Kazakh among both the young and older generation. As a good example, free Kazakh lessons will be available for everyone: authority bodies, students, workers of different companies. In state institutions and enterprises courses are opened, scientific and methodological materials are published and distributed. As part of the development of infrastructure for teaching the state language, a unified network of the state language teaching organization has been created for the adult population, including civil servants. Currently, there are 93 state language learning Centers.
On March 11th, 1985 Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev was elected the new General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Upon being elected, he immediately raised concerns about the social, economic and political issues in the Soviet Union, mainly those of economic decline, rising ethnic tensions and a rise in nationalism, leading to a stronger desire for Soviet Republics to gain their independence. This essay analyses the two sources by Gorbachev that set the complete reform of the Soviet Union in motion, ‘Gorbachev’s first views’ depicting his desire for reform and change, and ‘Gorbachev and the need for perestroika’ which depicts his dissatisfaction with the current system and the status-quo. Perestroika and Glasnost are undoubtedly the most essential sets of policies to understand Gorbachev’s intentions for reform and change of the system in the Soviet Union. This essay’s research question is “What kind of changes did Perestroika and Glasnost bring to the socio-economic aspect of the Soviet Union?” To answer this question, the essay analyses these sources, and the historic context that applies to them.
There is an observable relationship between economic development and the emergence of democracy in Korea during the 1980s. The rapid economic development enabled the rise of the working middle classes and hence an increased income gap. Furthermore, the progressive levels of resource focused (capital and knowledge) industrialisation resulted in high pluralism, which inevitably led citizens to question the regime’s legitimacy . The “societal disequilibrium” that Koreans experienced led to a sense of suppression and dissatisfaction, which ultimately provoked a revolution led by the middle
As it mentioned above, the exact example is that political control over the key political institutions’. There are many analyses about regression of democracy during Orban government. However, the main topic is that after twenty years of democratization, the Hungarian political system was a kind of liberal democracy characterised by a multiparty system, representative government, free elections, free media, a strong opposition, strong and independent courts, and confidential institutions that had protected the rule of law, why the voters believe in 2010 to a national-social populist party in Hungary. The complex history of the Hungarian society has to be examined in its socio-political and socio-economic dimensions to get an answer. The Dahrendorf paradox explains that the economy, polity, and society of the new democracies have not been transmuted in synchronous or parallel way, but they have been asynchronous transformations following, and even disturbing, each
In the days of the Kazakh Khanate, parents would not allow to their daughters to learn to read and write while males were not restricted on that. They believed that only men should be educated, which means being a part of society. However, by the end of Soviet era, the percentage of literate Kazakh women raised to 96%, 52% of students in university of Kazakhstan were females, and approximately 90% of women between the ages of 30-50 were employed (Bauer, Boschmann and Green 1997 cited in Werner 2009, 320). These data suggest that the Soviet Union period drastically changed Kazakh people’s perspective concerning education. As well as literacy is required factor, that affects to the diversity aspect of culture and helps save it for the next generations as it is, especially for women who are bringing up children.