However, John does not state them directly in the book. Most likely, the paramount recipients of John were Jewish Christians. Messiah is used to refer to Jesus, and the use of terms bread, water, and light in John 5-10 are “closely connected to their use in Jewish rituals” (Hwang). However, a contradicting theory states, due to the author’s “hostile manner” in referring to them, that the gospel was written for the Jews who do not believe. This is disbelieved due to those against Jesus mainly involving scribes and Pharisees, a quality that has been used to testify that the author of John is, in fact, Jewish (Guthrie).
After building up facts he turns the emotions felt to show how unfair slavery was. He quotes a part of the Declaration of Independence but then directly follows it with, “ but, sir, how pitiable is it to reflect… of my brethren under a groaning captivity, and cruel oppression” (9). Referring back to his heritage makes his argument stronger because it is more personal than it would be from a non African American. He then attempts to switch their perspective by quoting the Bible. The Americans were very religious people so and they were proving themselves hypocritical because the bible states, “put your soul in their soul's stead” (9).
The Bible word for this is "repentance" - to change our thinking about how grievous sin is, so our thinking is in line with God's. All that's left for you to do is to accept the gift that Jesus is holding out for you right now. [Romans 10:9-10 – KJV] That if thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved. For with the heart man believeth unto righteousness; and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation.”
Because of the Jewish influence on the disciples in to Rome, the concept of legal justification was affecting the thinking of the disciples. Judaism proposed that one was justified by meritorious keeping of law in conjunction with atonement for sin by meritorious deeds. This system of justification, commonly referred to by Bible students as legalism, had made significant inroads into the church. This thinking attacked the grace of God, and thus, Paul wrote in chapter 1-8 a defense of the fundamental principle that men are saved by the grace of God. (2).
The reason behind these parables is to be understood and put in action. One of these messages in the Lost Sheep Parable is to change what was known in Judaism. Pharisees thought themselves the closest to God and sinners were rejected, especially tax collectors. But Jesus showed them the opposite. He encouraged sinners to a clear message, to be righteous as he compares between the ninety-nine sheep to one lost sheep.
They were each responsible for the false teaching and doctrines that they were transmitting to the Jews. The Pharisees belief that the Law as open to interpretation as well as the great value they placed on the Law, especially the oral Law, saw them placing importance on their works and outward piety. Jesus saw the Pharisee's self-righteousness and pride. In Luke 11:39 He tells them, “Now do ye Pharisees make clean the outside of the cup and the platter; but your inward part is full of ravening and wickedness.” Unlike the Pharisees, the Sadducees believed the was that the Law that was given to Moses was to be interpreted literally. They rejected such ideas as immortality, the resurrection of the dead, and the existence of angels.
The sin which Bunyan want his reader to decipher is not merely the personal sins, its Original sin. By sketching the guilt without any specific delineation of sin, guilt originated and overwhelmed the Christian when he reads the Bible. He deliberately introduced the element of guilt and shame of sin that protagonist experienced by reading Bible, that not put light merely on his personal sins but reminds the sin of Adam and Eve, they perpetrated in Garden of Eden and all humanity shared that guilt of sin consequently. It is because of Original sin, which he inherited from his forefathers, compel him to commit personal sins. Since the original sin was not instinct driven (perpetrated in order to be God like), it was rebellion against god.
Reader is forced to question his own morals to decide which side here is actually the righteous one. Due to moral differentiations, readers split into two sides, supporting God or Satan. So, the line between true and false is not really clear. In Satan’s perspective, God is described with authoritarian and dull characteristics that make the reader see the God as an unattractive entity. On the other hand, it is possible to see Satan’s seductive nature and avoid choosing him over God.
As these deal with Jesus’ character such as his role as a teacher and his explanations of the message of God many find viewing images of Jesus as the easiest way of interpreting Jesus and his message. However Bultmann is greatly criticized for his views on Christology by Christologists today. One such person is (Strecker, 2000) who argues that the image of Jesus developed is in the religious content of Judaism Jesus spoke of the coming of the kingdom of God and explained it in a way that was relevant to the time of his teaching. This supporting that Jesus’ teaching was an integral part of his life and vital to the spreading of the message of the Kingdom of
______________________________________________________ Had Israel remained faithful in keeping the terms of this covenant as God wished, she would have succeeded in fulfilling her moral mission of leading all the nations of the world into worship to the One Creator God! ______________________________________________________ Unfortunately, Israel went a whoremongering after false gods, broke God’s covenant and desecrated His sacred statutes. But because of the unconditional nature of this covenant, which the Apostle Paul paraphrased in this manner, “God’s gifts – which speaks of covenant promises and; His calling – which speaks of the national election of Israel - are irrevocable” (Romans 11:29). The Apostle Paul who was given to understand the mystery of Israel, revealed it