1. Introduction A queue is a waiting line (like customers waiting at a supermarket checkout counter); it is formed whenever the current demand for a service exceeds the current capacity to provide that service. The unit demanding service is called ‘customer’ and the device at which it receives service is known as ‘server’. The queuing theory is the mathematical theory of waiting lines. More generally, queuing theory is concerned with the mathematical modeling and analysis of the system that provide service to random demands.
Solution: Problems in which a decision maker must choose between alternative queuing systems are called queuing optimization problems. In the current problem, the company’s goal is to minimize the sum of the hourly service cost and the expected hourly cost due to the idle times of machinists. In queuing optimization problems, the component of cost due to customers waiting in line is referred to as the delay cost. The queuing formula L = lamda* W is very general and can be applied to many situations that do not seem to be queuing problems. Think of any situation where a quantity (such as mortgage loan applications, potatoes at McDonald’s, revenues from computer sales) flows through a system.
The first queueing theory problem and research paper was published by the Danish engineer Agner Krarup Erlang in 1909. Erlang worked for the Copenhagen Telephone Exchange and spent much of his time considering the required size of a telephone exchange so that a reasonable number of telephone calls being not connected due to the exchange being busy was maintained. Within ten years, he developed a complex formula to solve this problem. Now known as queuing theory, this formula has become an integral part of the global telecommunications industry. Queuing theory has countless possible uses in everyday life.
“Queue Theory is the study of waiting line” Queue is the common activity of customers or people to avail the desired service, which could be processed or distributed one at a time. A queue is a waiting line (like customers waiting at a supermarket checkout counter); queueing model is the mathematical model of waiting lines. More generally, queueing theory is concerned with the mathematical modelling and analysis of systems that provide service to random demands. A queueing model is an abstract description of such a system. Typically, a queueing model represents the system's physical configuration, by specifying the number and arrangement of the servers, which provide service to the customers, and the stochastic (that is, probabilistic or statistical)
This article will give the reader a general background into queuing theory its associated terminology and it relationship to customer satisfaction. Queuing theory has been used in the past to assess such things as staff schedules, working environment, productivity customer waiting time, and customer waiting environment. In pharmacy, queuing theory can be used to assess a multitude of factors such as prescription fill-time, patient waiting time, patient counseling-time, and staffing levels. The application of queuing theory may be of particular benefit in pharmacies with high-volume outpatient workloads and/or those that provide multiple points of service. By better understanding queuing theory service managers can make decisions that increase the satisfaction of all relevant groups - customers, employees, and
Queuing models are an abstraction of Markov chain models. On assessing their empirical validity to assign patrols to City police stations, it has been concluded that queuing theory provides good approximations of the system behaviour. We configure a fleet whose vehicles get calls while on the route. The objective is to minimize operating costs subject to several constraints, including a maximum waiting time for customers, modelled using queuing formulas. Besides the Markov chain and the queuing models, an ambulance service can be studied by computer simulation.
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.0 INTRODUCTION This chapter provides the background and rationale for carrying out this research. There are nine (9) sections in this chapter starting with the overview of disciplinary cases occurred in Army Operation in Section 1.1. Next, Section 1.2 is the research problem statement that will be guiding this research. Subsequently are Section 1.4 and 1.5 that discussed the research question and research objective of this study. Following is Section 1.6 where researcher came up with conceptual framework that is inline with the study.
Researchers discussed in there study about the Global Warming, that economic growth have a big impact to our environment. They emphasize the threats in companies and in the government. They said that operation research is a slow development tradition in operations and reducing cost. In their study the researchers want to prove if operations research in not only for companies but also for green logistics or environment. In their study, they use operations research in various departments of the companies especially in production.
To raise new questions, new possibilities, to regard old questions from a new angle, requires creative imagination and marks real advance in science”. (p. 92). Problem posing provides students with opportunities to demonstrate what they already knows and how they have learned through the features and characteristics of the task (Kulm, 1994) and allow teachers to observe patterns in their mathematical learning and thinking. Problem posing is also recognized as a cognitive activity that improves students’ knowledge construction based on their prior knowledge and experiences (Brown & Walter, 2005; Silver, 1994). Many research findings have shown that mathematical problem solving and problem posing are closely related (Kilpatrick, 1987; NCTM, 2000; Silver,
Introduction Learning theories are the core guidance on planning the educational system. With the knowledge of the general principles,educators can manipulate their knowledge more efficiently to meet with diversity in learning circumstances. Theory by general definition is a the establishment and an explanation of the way brain acquiring knowledge. It is a sequence of a hypothesis that corresponding to each other which should be able to outline, clarify, predict or have control of the scenario. Learning theories defined as a description of learning and the approach towards the way a person obtain, assemble and use their skills and knowledge.