The human mind’s ability and innate desire to justify and explain the world and its phenomena has led to some of the most significant and world-altering discoveries and inventions, illustrated throughout the renaissance, enlightenment, scientific revolution, and industrial revolution. Logical pursuits comprise a significant capstone of human nature and progress. However, according to Rudolf Otto in The Idea of the Holy, these tendencies have created different dimensions of religion; the rational and non-rational, with the latter often times overlooked. The most significant difference between the rational and non-rational aspects of religion deal with their respective emphasis on reason and feeling. Rudolph Otto prioritizes the non-rational as offering a truer understanding of religion because he claims the core of all religious life revolves around experiences and feeling, not simply rational thought. Overall, the rational is but an attempt to define the undefinable. To understand Otto’s rejection of the rational, the rational must be understood. “Rational,” in The Idea of the Holy, refers to the conceptualization of religion and the divine itself. Otto’s basic definition of the rational stems from the establishment and application of concepts evidenced in “they can be grasped by the intellect; they can be analyzed by thought; they even admit of definition. An object that can thus be thought conceptually may be termed rational” (Otto, 1). Therefore, Otto establishes the
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In a world where religion represents a crucial role in the lives of countless people, there is no doubt that it influences an individual’s daily decisions. There are numerous religions that have been created, although the most significant ones have been widely practiced for centuries. Each of the world’s major religions have distinctions that set them apart from others. Consequently, these distinctions cause turmoil between religions due to individual biased opinion for their God. Followers of a religion suppose that their faith is designated as the most favorable and true religion of all practices.
In the Age of Reason, also known as the Enlightenment period, times were changing. Originally, people’s perception of life was based on religion. Religion had answers to things such as why you were sick, or why you were poor. This time occurred in the 17th century when certain scientist, philosophers, and writers decided that there were other reasons besides religion on why things happened. Many believed that all life could be explained by scientific views rather than religion.
In comprehending why Esotericism should be studied as part of Religious Studies, it is essential to explore the concept of Transmutation, which is prominently seen to emphasise individual experience in attaining self- empowerment through achieving inner-knowledge. This also coherently links to the Esoteric concept of Gnosticism, with a focus on tradition/transmission paralleling the master/teacher relationship commonly seen within religious practice. This opinion is supported to through the growth of New Age Activities in Western society, for example meditation, in which the concept of Philosophia Perrenis is commonly seen to be explored. Similarly, another parallel between religion and esotericism is the combined beliefs of the Esoteric and the religious thinker, supported through the example of Jung, with his concept of the Self “principium individuationis,” (1944)) coherently connecting individual religious experience with elements of
Jason Iloulian Professor Farley Second Paper Nov 10th – 2015 Do Socrates and Voltaire have the same view of the relation between reason and religion? For the most part, one can sufficiently argue that both Socrates and Voltaire have the same view of the relation between reason and religion. Such a view is best summarized as the notion that religion is within the bounds of reason.
A common questioning of a higher power beyond the physical realm lingers in society: Who and what is God?. However, many of these theological questions cannot be answered until we, of course, die. Due to human’s innate curiosity to understand the forces beyond their own, especially in terms of religion, humans find their own reasons to believe in God in the process of discovery. Religion is a sense of belief and worship to praise a higher power (God), and it provides a guide for human beings to have the opportunity to come together and live as one image of God’s children. “Imagine There’s No Heaven” is an article in which Salman Rushdie, the author, presents an atheistic view where religion is pointless, and a higher being is non-existent.
Furthermore, during this period, the people of Europe depended upon the Bible to justify the world. (Background) In the 1300’s, humanism; which praised the intelligence of the individual, strived. Subsequently, the Renaissance people became more self-sufficient. Humanism was vigorous in Italy, where it made it’s way into fields such as art, science, and math.
Humans are unlike any other creature on this planet, as we are able to think and reason. These two abilities have created the most powerful minds ever known such as, Albert Einstein, Isaac Newton, and Plato. These abilities have also lead to some powerful arguments one of such being our beliefs. Some philosophers believe that all beliefs must be justified, while others believe that only some of our beliefs must be justified. W.K. Clifford argues that it is morally wrong to act or believe without sufficient evidence.
In Albert Einstein’s letter to a sixth-grade student, Phyllis Wright, Einstein provides a rhetorically ineffective response about the role of religion in a scientist’s life by misusing specific diction and appealing to ethos. Einstein uses words like “supernatural” and “fragmentary” to describe his religious beliefs; although he understands his audience is young, he is unable to conform his diction to suit the audience’s needs. The grandiose language Einstein uses could be too complicated for Wright. Through the confusion this causes, Wright could miss the candid response Einstein is attempting to provide. In addition, Einstein attempts to appeal to ethos , but dreadfully fails.
Misunderstandings and faulty ideas are direct results of human reasoning digesting and misinterpreting ideas. Knowledge, in short, fuels reasoning. External concepts are taken in, where human reasoning then extrapolates and comprehends the knowledge. But what we take in from our senses can be misleading. Petrarch expresses in a faithful, crystalline, and unclouded Christian manner that he may not be able to trust ideas from the outside, but “it is He in whom I can trust” (101).
In relation to Christianity, Ninian Smart’s Seven Dimensions of religion seem to all be at play and sometimes overlap between dimensions. But because Christianity is such a vast religion with many subdivisions and differing views, certain dimensions that are consistent throughout the differing sects play a greater role than other dimensions that are less consistent across sects. Consistently prioritized in this religion are the aspects of the ritual or practical dimension, the ethical or legal dimension, and the experiential or emotional dimension. For Christianity, the ritual or practical dimension applies to the various forms of worship, prayer, and other practices of the Christian church.
Descartes and Hume. Rationalism and empiricism. Two of the most iconic philosophers who are both credited with polarizing theories, both claiming they knew the answer to the origin of knowledge and the way people comprehend knowledge. Yet, despite the many differences that conflict each other’s ideologies, they’re strikingly similar as well. In this essay I will attempt to find an understanding of both rationalism and empiricism, show the ideologies of both philosophers all whilst evaluating why one is more theory is potentially true than the other.
These experiences are concerned with three topics. 1) “Similarly between religious experiences and how do they support the existence of God? 2) What philosophical problems are there that these experiences can give us knowledge about God? 3) Is there alternative explanation for experience?” William James described religious experiences as the heart of every religion.
Encompassing the Transcendental Era are the beliefs of ideality, establishment of a utopia, skepticism of religion, and the arrival of knowledge through intuition. The reader can see a demonstration of these beliefs in the short story To Build a Fire. In this story, London depicts
Faith and reason are the two wings that help the man to rise to the truth. Faith and Reason (Fides et Ratio) are like two wings on which the human spirit rises to the contemplation of truth. This expression leads Pope John Paul II 's encyclical "Fides et Ratio". After reading this encyclical, I was amazed in how Pope John Paul II, in so few many words is able to synthesize the core of his letter, the subject of truth, something essential in life and history of men. Thus, as Pope John Paul II sponsors the capacity of human reason to be aware of the truth and demand that faith and philosophy again find their profound unity.