The comparison here is further strengthened when Paine claims that “[his] mind is [his] own church” because it shows that he is relying on his own thinking and his own faith in God to get to Heaven, whereas the general public was blindly following previous authoritative ways and counting on indulgences (The Age of Reason: Deism). That being said, encouraging the masses to rely on reason was also a goal the philosophes tried to achieve. One example of trying to reach this goal is publishing the
Human beings, however, obviously vary due to cultural, racial, linguistic, and era-specific differences and influences which suggest that knowledge is volatile and liquid. Nevertheless, innate ideas, being inborn in nature, rather, then belong to a more fundamental, inborn level of human cognition. As to what we humans are mindful of, we are indubitably, unquestionably, aware of the existence of a god—what René Descartes theorized as the knowledge of god, innate to us due to our faculty of faith. Leibniz suggests that certain innate ideas must be true in itself, disregarding the need of experience to contest the truth behind the idea, the most distinguishable of these being mathematical truisms, which he regarded as “necessary truths.” Leibniz argues that,
In fact being made in the image of God allows us to understand the nature of God where we reach to a high capacity of exploring his grace. In Augustine’s reflection “there is something of the human person which is unknown even to the ‘spirit of man which is in him’...-I nevertheless know something of you which I do not know about myself”(Augustine, 182). This statement explains how one can know about oneself through knowing God because one is made in his image. According to Augustine the full discovery of human person occurs through having the true knowledge about God. Grace makes a way for us to acquire the knowledge about God.
His philosophical contributions are basically in the philosophy of religion and philosophy of science. He stirred so much discussion with his early work in the philosophy of religion, a series of books comprising of ‘The Coherence of Theism’, ‘The Existence of God’, and ‘Faith and Reason’. Richard Swinburne can be said to be theist because of his works which he talked about the belief of God. Meanwhile, theism can be said to be the belief in one God as the creator and ruler of the universe, without rejection of revelation (Dictionary, 1986). As a member of the Orthodox Church, he is recognised as one of the foremost Christian apologists, arguing in his various articles and books that faith in Christianity is rational and coherent in a rigorous philosophical sense While Swinburne
Learning has undeniably an incongruous aspect. It varies with the time, individuals, and settings. Now and then, it can be simple or multifaceted, but its assorted significance and conduct causing aspects make it the object that synergizes astuteness in the civilization. And even, dissimilar hypothetical prototypes do have a role to play in constructing it an imperative entity (Leena & Rauno, 2010). Talking about humanistic theory, it homes in on human’s ideals and subjective matters.
Sometimes, we are forced to believe something solely because of our self interest, and others solely because there is overwhelming evidence to support it. “Pascal…was interested in the question of whether it could be rational to believe in God even if you think it is enormously improbable that God exists.” I will attempt to argue along with Pascal using prudential reasoning to validate his statement. I will explain what prudential reasoning is and what evidential reasoning is (II), and whether beliefs can
Ultimately for Kierkegaard, demonstrating the insufficiency of rational proofs is precisely what is necessary to establish true faith in God. In his Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding Hume laments that “Philosophical arguments proving the existence of
Habermas explains that, “in any speech act, the speaker takes up a relation to something in the objective world, something in a common social world, and something in his own subjective world. Habermas expands on the phenomenological conception of the life world as a context for mutual understanding. The life world provides context and background from which individuals draw upon when making propositions. And simultaneously provides social norms, and background for a speakers intent. For Habermas Communicative Action is how we achieve practical reason.
He believed that metaphysics and theology, the “divine science,” could in fact be considered one and the same, both emanating from the divine source of God. He also believed that it was possible then to use reason to understand faith and God since God had given man both reason and faith, so the two were in fact not in opposition. The belief was held by thinkers like Averroes, Avicenna, and Aquinas that it was impossible for a science to demonstrate the existence of its own subject, thus Aquinas was forced to eliminate God as the subject of metaphysics since he would be unable to then use the principles of metaphysics to prove the existence of God in the case of the subject being God. Yet, Aquinas also believed that a science studied not only its subject but also attempted to discover more of the cause of that subject, which Aquinas felt was God. Thus, metaphysics could be used to study God indirectly as the cause of being as
Stoicism gave the entire traditional definition of natural law. The Stoics contended that the universe is represented by reason, or rational standard; they further contended that all people have reason inside them and in this manner they can know and comply with its law. Since people have a free will, they won 't really comply with the law; but even if they act as per their reason, they will be "following nature". Christian thinkers promptly adapted Stoic natural law theory, recognizing natural law with the law of God. For Thomas Aquinas, normal law is that part of the endless law of God ("the reason of divine intelligence") which is comprehensible by people by means of their forces of reason.