Renal Disease Case Studies

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Module 9 Case Study
Acute Renal Injury and Chronic Kidney Disease

Will is a 68-year-old male with a history of hypertension. Eight months ago, he started regular dialysis therapy for ESRD. Before that, his physician was closely monitoring his condition because he had polyuria and nocturia. Soon it became difficult to manage his hypertension. He also lost his appetite, became weak, easily fatigued, and had edema around his ankles. Will debated with his physician about starting dialysis, but she insisted, before the signs and symptoms of uremia increased, the treatment was absolutely necessary.
1. What is the etiology of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)? What is the difference between azotemia and uremia? What laboratory tests would be ordered to determine
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Dialysis can consist of hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. The choice between dialysis and transplantation is based on age, health-related problems, donor availability, and personal preference. Dialysis is a life-sustaining treatment for those who are not a candidate for a kidney transplant. Management includes medication compliance to antihypertension medications, proper blood sugar control, adhering to dietary restriction, stop smoking, and maintaining a healthy weight. Complications include: (Grossman & Porth, 2014).
• Anemia- When your kidneys are not working correctly, your body may not have enough red blood cells
• Skeletal Disorders- ESRD can cause bone tenderness and muscle weakness.
Heart disease- Heart disease is the most common cause of death among people on dialysis. Also, fluid build-up can occur, you may notice a faster heartbeat and swelling that starts in your feet and ankles and moves upward.
• Neuromuscular disorder-Peripheral neuropathy usually affects the lower limbs more than the upper limbs.
• Sexual Dysfunction- Men often complain of impotence and women have decreased libido and vaginal

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