An individual experiences pleasure when the desires are satisfied but it is not a guarantee that the desires cause pleasure. The desire satisfaction theory is not affected by experience but the hedonism theory is affected by experience. The outside world affects the desire satisfaction theory but the hedonism theory is independent of the outside world. This is because the desires can only be satisfied if the world is cooperative. The most successful theory is the desire satisfaction theory.
Happiness is the only thing desirable; all other things being only desirable are means to that end. The utilitarian doctrine then holds that happiness is the only desirable end, and actions are right in terms of the promotion of happiness. In Mill’s argument, the moral agent is to promote ‘general happiness’ as the ultimate end of human action: Pleasure and freedom from pain are the only things desirable as ends, and that all desirable things are desirable either for pleasure inherent in themselves or as means to the
Another one is related to the nature of well-being. While hedonism thinks pleasure is constituent of well-being’s nature and all sources of well-being are reducible to pleasure, the theory of authentic happiness claims that pleasure is just one of the sources of well-being. Authentic happiness theory makes two objections regarding the hedonist definition of the nature of
John Stuart Mill, at the very beginning of chapter 2 entitled “what is utilitarianism”. starts off by explaining to the readers what utility is, Utility is defined as pleasure itself, and the absence of pain. This leads us to another name for utility which is the greatest happiness principle. Mill claims that “actions are right in proportions as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness.” “By Happiness is intended pleasure and the absence of pain, by happiness, pain and the privation of pleasure”. (Mill, utilitarianism, p.697) To put this into simpler terms, Mill is essentially saying events or experiences are desirable only when it is a source for pleasure, so actions are good when they lead to higher levels of general happiness and they are deemed as bad when it lowers your general level of happiness.
Utilitarianism is a normative ethics theory according to which the rightness or wrongness of an act is determined by the outcome and its effect on the total happiness. According to Jeremy Bentham, it is ‘that principle which states the greatest happiness of all those whose interest is in question, as being the right and proper… end of human action’. John Stuart Mill, in his book Utilitarianism, states that all “actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness”. Happiness, according Mill, is “pleasure and the absence of pain”. In his book, Mill states that happiness is desirable (Proof: because we desire it) and nothing other than happiness is desirable, as anything else desired is only a means to or part of happiness.
Comparative analysis of Aristotelian Equality In Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle asserts one cannot live a virtuous and fulfilling life without the presence of a friend, despite the presence of the essential goods. In addition to his point, he states the best friendships are built upon a true equality which in turn builds on the mutual contributions and goodness of the character of the individuals within a friendship. Without equality, Aristotle argues, friendships tend to fall apart either due to eventual conflicts of interest or the friendship outliving it usefulness. However, some might argue the best friendships do not need any equality among individuals and can still produce the benefits of a Aristotle definition of the best friendship. Although this argument suggests the absence of equality produces a better friendship and life, I will defend Aristotle’s view by presenting textual evidence from of Nicomachean Ethics proving otherwise.
Kant uses the word sensation spesifically for pleasures and displeasures related to the five senses. Judgments of beauty depend on feeling rather than “objective sensation” differentiates them from cognitive judments based on perception. Kant puts an end to this Moment with observing that desire stimulates the agreeable and the good, with a bond between the subject and the real existence of the object. But the judgement of taste, for instance, the beautiful, differs through its disinterested feeling, it pleases and produces objective worth for rational, intelligent beings. “For Favour is the only free liking,” he says, and this is what he means by “disinterestedness.” Kant’s second moment is about “subjective universality” attached to an object.
Jeremy Bentham’s theory is the generalization of the term Utilitarianism. The very basics of Utilitarianism is the ideal that, “the needs of the many outweigh the needs of the few,”meaning that Bentham sought to generate the most beneficial option to the vastest amount of individuals. Bentham’s sole concept was to perceive humans as beings of pleasure or for every action the ultimate outcome is pleasure. The concept of Utilitarianism is to consecrate an ethical, moral, construct for every individual to follow rather than selfishly condemn the pleasures of others to achieve one’s pleasure. Utilitarianists believe that certain situations have options and they are morally inclined to seek the option that is to lead to the benefit of the majority.
1. The idea behind Hedonism is that the primary human value is to achieve pleasure and avoid pain at all costs. People who follow this ideological way of life define pain and pleasure as the only two things with intrinsic value, meaning that they can identify what’s is “good” or “bad”, if they produce pain or pleasure, making pleasure the ultimate good, and pain “bad”. Continuously pleasure or happiness can be achieved by indulging on physical indulgences, like drinking, eating and sex, now all of this can only give you physical pleasure and usually doesn’t last for a long time, and to achieve more of it, you keep chasing after it until it doesn’t have same effect or pleasure like it once did. Aristippus and Epicurus who were different philosophers
And it also aims was to maximize the pleasure and reduce the pain that we have experienced. Also, Hedonism considered as philosophy on life, because it makes way to enlightenment in life to create a happiness in life, and to other, it may be a mischance or misfortune. Hedonism also considered as a crime or sin to any religious person, because it is immoral to God to have a self-happiness. But according to Non-Philosopher Hedonism is rather selfish, because it depends on the person if what makes him/ her happy. In this paper, it will show how hedonism affects